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Pacific Western University was the name of an unaccredited university which was closed in May 2006 following a lawsuit filed by the State of Hawaii a year earlier. Wikipedia.

Marler T.E.,Pacific Western University
American Journal of Botany | Year: 2010

Specialist insects share obligate mutualisms with some contemporary cycad species whereby the insect' s pollination services are rewarded with a nursery in which the insect' s larvae consume the postdispersal male cone. I prevented visits of the pollinator moth Anatrachyntis sp. to male Cycas micronesica (Cycadaceae) cones to show that consumption of the cone tissue by the mutualist hastened initiation of the plant' s subsequent reproductive event. This is the first documented case where removal of a postdispersal cycad pollination organ speeds up subsequent reproductive events, and the current paradigm that the offering of cone tissue as a nursery is a sacrifice by the plant in return for the pollination services is therefore inaccurate. In C. micronesica, the herbivory stage of pollination mutualism confers a cryptic benefit of cone tissue disposal, which translates into an increase in ultimate lifetime reproductive effort. The plant population relies on the pollinator for moving gametes, as well as for increasing the number of male coning events. The dual benefits afforded to the plant by associating with this pollinator shows that mutualism can operate simultaneously on very different traits. © 2010 Botanical Society of America.

Marler T.E.,Pacific Western University
HortScience | Year: 2011

'Sunrise' and 'Tainung 2' papaya seedlings were subjected to 3 weeks of ambient winds in Guam during five experiments, and growth responses of roots, leaves, and stems were quantified to compare speed and extent of the plasticity among the organs. The cultivars responded similarly with 1 week eliciting stem growth responses and 2 weeks eliciting root responses. The timeframe of these studies was sufficient to enable adaptive responses in all three organs. Wind reduced stem and leaf expansion rate but not root extension rate, providing one example of how the form of response differed among the organs. A dose-effect was evident among the experiments with magnitude of response increasing with mean ambient wind speed. Asymmetric stem diameter and root tip density were examples of adaptive responses to directional wind load. These data on young papaya plants may be used to inform field experiments aiming to determine how chronic winds influence long-term growth and fitness.

Marler T.E.,Pacific Western University | Niklasy K.J.,Cornell University
International Journal of Plant Sciences | Year: 2011

Cycas micronesica K.D. Hill plants growing in two habitats differing in exposure to wind and salt spray were examined to see whether reproductive effort and success (as gauged by ovule and seed number, respectively) were influenced by abiotic factors as well as by plant size (as gauged by the height of megastrobili above ground). The data were collected via a split-plot design, with plant height nested in habitat type (exposed vs. protected site). Although mean plant height did not differ between the two sites, statistical analyses using a mixed model indicated that plants growing in the protected site had a greater reproductive effort and were more successful than plants growing in the unprotected site; i.e., plant height nested in habitat type had a significant effect. The numbers of ovules and seeds on the windward and leeward sides of each megastrobilus did not differ. Therefore, anemophily could not be confirmed. These data provide (1) the first quantitative demonstration that cycad reproductive effort and success are significantly influenced by abiotic variables such as habitat wind exposure, (2) the first investigation of any of the arborescent cycad species to address the effect of megastrobilus height on pollinator behavior, and (3) evidence that habitat type may have a significant effect on conservation efforts for this and other endangered cycad species. © 2011 by The University of Chicago.

Marler T.E.,Pacific Western University
Communicative and Integrative Biology | Year: 2015

Contributions of biologists to tropical cyclone research may improve by integrating concepts from other disciplines. Employing accumulated cyclone energy into protocols may foster greater integration of ecology and meteorology research. Considering experienced ecosystems as antifragile instead of just resilient may improve cross-referencing among ecological and social scientists. Quantifying ecosystem capital as distinct from ecosystem services may improve integration of tropical cyclone ecology research into the expansive global climate change research community. © Thibaud Gruber, Timothée Poisot, Klaus Zuberbühler, William Hoppitt, and Catherine Hobaiter.

Reddy G.V.P.,Montana State University | Bautista J.R.,Pacific Western University
Biocontrol Science and Technology | Year: 2012

The red spider mite, Tetranychus marianae McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae), a pest of several vegetable crops and perennials, is widespread in the Pacific Islands, like the Mariana Islands, where it was first reported. Recently, T. marianae has become a serious pest, particularly affecting eggplant. Efforts were therefore made to develop an integrated approach to control of T. marianae. First, indoor experiments on eggplant, Solanum melongena L. (Solanaceae), determined the optimal combination of petroleum spray oil (PSO; Volck® oil spray) with release of Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) for the management of T. marianae. Additionally, studies evaluated the viability of the predatory mites on Guam. The combination of N. californicus with PSOs produced significant control of T. marianae and did not affect the survival of N. californicus. Although dicofol and carbaryl reduced populations of T. marianae, they caused high mortality of N. californicus. Integrating PSO with N. californicus yielded better control of T. marianae than did N. californicus alone. The release of N. californicus at 200 individuals per plant reduced populations of T. marianae more than did other release rates. In addition, N. californicus was able to survive and become established after being released on Guam. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

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