Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission

Newport, OR, United States

Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission

Newport, OR, United States
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Reum J.C.P.,University of Washington | Williams G.D.,Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission | Harvey C.J.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
Advances in Marine Biology | Year: 2017

Stable isotopes are used to address a wide range of ecological questions and can help researchers and managers better understand the movement and trophic ecology of sharks. Here, we review how shark studies from the Northeast Pacific Ocean (NEP) have employed stable isotopes to estimate trophic level and diet composition and infer movement and habitat-use patterns. To date, the number of NEP shark studies that have used stable isotopes is limited, suggesting that the approach is underutilized. To aid shark researchers in understanding the strengths and limitations of the approach, we provide a brief overview of carbon and nitrogen stable isotope trophic discrimination properties (e.g., change in δ 15N between predator and prey), tissue sample preparation methods specific to elasmobranchs, and methodological considerations for the estimation of trophic level and diet composition. We suggest that stable isotopes are a potentially powerful tool for addressing basic questions about shark ecology and are perhaps most valuable when combined and analysed with other data types (e.g., stomach contents, tagging data, or other intrinsic biogeochemical markers). © 2017 Elsevier Ltd.

Williams G.D.,Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission | Levin P.S.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | Palsson W.A.,Marine Resources Unit
Marine Policy | Year: 2010

In Puget Sound, WA (USA), rockfish (Sebastes spp.) have significantly declined in abundance, with multiple petitions to list individual species under the Endangered Species Act. In order to better understand the ecological legacy of rockfish fishing to the Puget Sound ecosystem, the local history of rockfish exploitation was reviewed, focusing on the socioeconomic forces and management decisions which influenced the trajectory of landings. Rockfish have always been harvested for human consumption in the region, but over time exploitation patterns have changed from an opportunistic subsistence activity by indigenous peoples, to a year-round target of commercial and recreational interests. Annual commercial and recreational harvests together peaked (almost 400. mt) in the early 1980s as anglers' attitudes changed, gear technology improved, rockfish became more familiar to the market, human population increased, and agency programs promoted fisheries to sustain employment. Rockfishes were generally not managed intensely or with conservation goals in mind until the late 1980s, in part due to scientific shortcomings and a lack of resources. By the time management actions were deemed necessary, the greatest harvest had already occurred. However, the low intrinsic productivity of most rockfish species suggests that the legacy of fishing will remain for years to come. As managers strive to restore the integrity and resilience of Puget Sound, they must realize the significance of historical fishery removals to the ecosystem and use the proper social and economic incentives to drive individual behavior toward these ecosystem goals. © 2010.

White J.W.,University of California at Davis | White J.W.,University of North Carolina at Wilmington | Samhouri J.F.,Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission | Samhouri J.F.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
Oikos | Year: 2011

A central goal of metapopulation ecology is to determine which subpopulations have the greatest value to the larger metapopulation. That is, where are the 'sources' that are most essential to persistence? This question is especially relevant to benthic marine systems, where dispersal and recruitment are greatly affected by oceanographic processes. In a single-species context, theoretical models typically identify 'hotspots' with high recruitment, especially high self-recruitment, as having the highest value. However, the oceanographic forces affecting larval delivery of a given species may also influence the recruitment of that species' predators, prey, and competitors. We present evidence from the Virgin Islands and Bahamas that oceanographic forces produce spatial coupling between the recruitment of planktivorous fishes, the recruitment of their predators, and the productivity of their zooplankton prey. We examined the consequences of this type of multi-trophic coupling using a simple analytical population model and a multispecies numerical simulation model with parameter values based on the Virgin Islands system. In both analyses, strong coupling caused planktivores at the highest recruitment sites to experience higher mortality (a consequence of higher predator densities) but faster growth and higher fecundity (a consequence of higher zooplankton densities) than planktivores at low recruitment sites. As such, the relative strength of oceanographic coupling between the three trophic levels strongly determined whether a particular reef acted as a source or sink. In the simulation model, density-dependent competition for zooplankton limited overall metapopulation biomass more severely than predation, so oceanographic coupling between planktivore larval supply and zooplankton productivity had a stronger effect on the metapopulation value of a patch. We argue that the potential for such tri-trophic coupling should be incorporated into future metacommunity models and has considerable implications for the design and evaluation of marine reserves. © 2011 The Authors. Oikos © 2011 Nordic Society Oikos.

Seesholtz A.M.,500 Industrial Boulevard | Manuel M.J.,Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission | Van Eenennaam J.P.,University of California at Davis
Environmental Biology of Fishes | Year: 2014

California’s Sacramento River mainstem was previously the only known spawning area for the Southern Distinct Population Segment of North American green sturgeon, Acipenser medirostris. Our study provides the first documentation of green sturgeon spawning in the Feather River, a major tributary of the Sacramento River. Egg mats were used to sample two lower Feather River sites from April 12 to July 7, 2011, and we collected 13 green sturgeon eggs at one of those sites. Developmental stages of the eggs ranged from early gastrulation (Stage 15) to post-neurulation (Stage 27), which led us to estimate that four independent spawning events occurred between June 12 and June 19. Spawning occurred after a flow increase while water temperatures were at an optimum (<17.5 °C) for eggs. Results suggest that the area near Thermalito Afterbay Outlet may be important green sturgeon spawning habitat and that the lower Feather River has the potential to provide a second production area of Southern Distinct Population Segment green sturgeon. It should be noted that 2011 was a wet water year and supplemental sampling is needed to understand if water-year type affects green sturgeon usage of the lower Feather River. Given this new information, future management decisions and water management strategies for the Feather River system should take green sturgeon life-history needs into consideration. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

News Article | December 22, 2016

Research and Markets has announced the addition of the "Wearable Technology for Animals 2017-2027: Technologies, Markets, Forecasts" report to their offering. This report concerns the needs, technology and markets for wearable electronics for animals, from pets to livestock and wild animals. We include the back-up equipment and systems and devices that are ingested to rest in a stomach of an animal. We also include devices implanted under the skin. There are currently about 300 manufacturers of such things in the world, the highest percentage in China, making very basic product at lowest price, followed by the USA then other countries we identify, the latter including the primary innovators. Over the coming decade, manufacturers will rise to 500 as the value market increases more than 2.5 times. Most of these devices and their systems are used in the USA and Europe followed by Australia where RFID tagging of cattle is mandatory. RFID ear tags for cows then non-RFID collars on dogs for many purposes are currently the most popular forms of wearable electronics on animals across the world. In 2027, livestock tagging will still be most popular but it will much more often involve diagnostics. Indeed, medical diagnostic tagging of livestock, pets and endangered species will become commonplace. Medical treatment using electronics and electrics will also be steadily adopted following today's practice on humans with heating, cooling, iontophoretic drug delivery and so on, eventually even in response to the fitted diagnostics. The animals most likely to employ wearable electronics in volume in the next decade are those controlled by humans notably certain livestock, work animals and pets that we identify but conservation of wild species will also increase in number and sophistication. Key Topics Covered: 1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 1.1. Scope 1.2. Dramatic emergence 1.3. Two types - different characteristics 1.4. Forecasts 2016-2027 1.5. Animal electronics: needs, market dynamics, types 1.6. Business dynamics 1.7. Lessons from wearable electronics for humans 1.8. News from May 2016 onwards 1.9. Examples of pet wearables in 2016 / 2017 1.10. Rapid consolidation of pet wearables manufacturers 2. INTRODUCTION 2.1. Challenges and needs 2.2. Methods of traceability 2.3. Legislation driving animal, food and farming RFID 2.4. Eccentricities - 2016 / 2017. 3. RFID TECHNOLOGY, STANDARDS, SUPPLIERS 3.1. Introduction: needs and successes 3.2. Definitions and choices 3.3. RFID technology for animals 3.4. Relevant RFID standards 3.5. Animal RFID: 62 manufacturers profiled 4. OTHER ANIMAL WEARABLE ELECTRONICS 4.1. Two types of application with different characteristics 4.2. Adoption on cows 4.3. The Internet of Pigs is set to fly 4.4. More problems to tackle 4.5. Beyond RFID: examples of 62 products from 49 manufacturers 5. INSIGHTS FROM A VETERINARY SURGEON BY EMMA NAPIER BA MA VETMB (CANTAB) 5.1. Farm Animals 5.2. Horses 5.2.1. Racehorses: injury prevention 5.3. Dogs 5.4. Cats 5.5. Diabetes 6. RFID FOR ANIMALS 6.1. Examples of livestock tagging countries 6.2. Thirty five case studies of RFID for livestock in seventeen countries 6.3. Technical trends APPENDIX 1: TECHNOLOGIES, EPCGLOBAL, RADIO REGULATIONS APPENDIX 2: GLOSSARY Companies Mentioned - Agri-Traçabilité Québec (ATQ) - Alberta Agriculture & Tyson Foods - Asocebú - B3R Country Meats - Chitale Dairy - DEFRA - Delhi - Fevex - Fraser River Sturgeon Conservation Society - Hangzhou City - Iffco-Tokio General Insurance - JRC - Ken Habermehl - Klein Karoo Co-operative - LSCM - Levinoff-Colbex - NAIT - Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission - Pandas - Santa Rita Experimental Farm - Shanghai Xinnong Feed - Shenzhen Hong Kong Innovation Circle - Smithfield Premium Genetics - Smørfjord - Taiwan Government - Thai Government - CoreRFID - US Department of Agriculture - University of Waterloo For more information about this report visit Research and Markets Laura Wood, Senior Manager For E.S.T Office Hours Call +1-917-300-0470 For U.S./CAN Toll Free Call +1-800-526-8630 For GMT Office Hours Call +353-1-416-8900 U.S. Fax: 646-607-1907 Fax (outside U.S.): +353-1-481-1716

Daly E.A.,Oregon State University | Auth T.D.,Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission | Brodeur R.D.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | Peterson W.T.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
Marine Ecology Progress Series | Year: 2013

Diets of juvenile coho Oncorhynchus kisutch and Chinook O. tshawytscha salmon are made up primarily of winter-spawning fish taxa in the late-larval and early juvenile stages that are undersampled in plankton and larger trawl nets. Although we have no direct measure of the availability of fish prey important to juvenile salmon during early marine residence, we do have data on the larval stage of their prey that may be used as a surrogate for the later stages. Data on these prey items were obtained from ichthyoplankton samples collected along the Newport Oregon Hydrographic line (44.65° N) during January-March in 1998-2010. We explored winter biomass of prey fish larvae as a potential indicator of marine feeding conditions for young salmon the following spring. The proportion of total winter ichthyoplankton biomass considered to be common salmon fish prey fluctuated from 13.9% in 2006 to 95.0% in 2000. The relationship between biomass of fish larvae in winter and subsequent coho salmon survival was highly significant (r2 = 50.0, p = 0.004). When the 2 outlier years of 1998 (El Niño) and 1999 (La Niña) were removed, this relationship was also highly significant for spring Chinook (r2 = 70.7, p = 0.0002) and significant for fall Chinook salmon (r2 = 34.0, p = 0.03) returns. Winter larval fish composition showed a high degree of overlap with juvenile salmon diets during May, but less overlap in June. Larval fishes appeared to be an early and cost-effective indicator of ocean ecosystem conditions and future juvenile salmon survival. © Inter-Research 2013.

Lomeli M.J.M.,Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission | Wakefield W.W.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
Fisheries Research | Year: 2012

This study examined two versions of an open escape window bycatch reduction device (BRD) designed to reduce bycatch of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and rockfish (Sebastes spp.) in the U.S. Pacific coast Pacific hake (Merluccius productus) fishery. Tests were conducted off central Oregon during 2009 and 2010 aboard a midwater trawler. Data on fish behavior and gear performance were observed using autonomous high-resolution low-light color video cameras and artificial lights. During this study, one of the BRD versions reduced both Chinook salmon and widow rockfish (S. entomelas) bycatch. The use of artificial light was also noted to influence the behavior of Chinook salmon. The mean escape time of Chinook salmon differed significantly between the two versions examined. Escapement of Pacific hake, the target species, was rarely observed. Results of this study suggest that there is potential for reducing Chinook salmon and widow rockfish bycatch in the Pacific hake fishery using open escape window BRDs. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Lomeli M.J.M.,Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission | Wakefield W.W.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
Fisheries Research | Year: 2013

This study examined a flexible sorting grid excluder designed to reduce Pacific halibut (Hippoglossus stenolepis) bycatch in the US west coast groundfish bottom trawl fishery. Tests occurred off Washington during 2011 aboard a commercial trawler. A recapture net was used to quantify the retention rates of target and non-target species. Pacific halibut bycatch was reduced 61.6% by weight and 57.0% by numbers. Exclusion was greatest for Pacific halibut weighing more than 4.5. kg. A significant difference in the mean total length was also noted between Pacific halibut caught in the codend and the recapture net, with larger fish occurring in the recapture net. The retention of primary target groundfishes of marketable-size ranged from 76.7 to 89.3%. We demonstrated the capability of a flexible sorting grid excluder to reduce Pacific halibut bycatch in the groundfish bottom trawl fishery while retaining a relatively high proportion of the targeted species. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Samhouri J.F.,Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission | Levin P.S.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | Ainsworth C.H.,Marine Resources Assessment Group Americas Inc.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2010

Background: One of the greatest obstacles to moving ecosystem-based management (EBM) from concept to practice is the lack of a systematic approach to defining ecosystem-level decision criteria, or reference points that trigger management action. Methodology/Principal Findings: To assist resource managers and policymakers in developing EBM decision criteria, we introduce a quantitative, transferable method for identifying utility thresholds. A utility threshold is the level of humaninduced pressure (e.g., pollution) at which small changes produce substantial improvements toward the EBM goal of protecting an ecosystem's structural (e.g., diversity) and functional (e.g., resilience) attributes. The analytical approach is based on the detection of nonlinearities in relationships between ecosystem attributes and pressures. We illustrate the method with a hypothetical case study of (1) fishing and (2) nearshore habitat pressure using an empirically-validated marine ecosystem model for British Columbia, Canada, and derive numerical threshold values in terms of the density of two empirically-tractable indicator groups, sablefish and jellyfish. We also describe how to incorporate uncertainty into the estimation of utility thresholds and highlight their value in the context of understanding EBM trade-offs. Conclusions/Significance: For any policy scenario, an understanding of utility thresholds provides insight into the amount and type of management intervention required to make significant progress toward improved ecosystem structure and function. The approach outlined in this paper can be applied in the context of single or multiple human-induced pressures, to any marine, freshwater, or terrestrial ecosystem, and should facilitate more effective management.

Rehr A.P.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | Williams G.D.,Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission | Levin P.S.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
Marine Policy | Year: 2014

Systematic scenario analysis is increasingly being used as an approach to evaluate ecosystem-based management options, often using "storylines" communicated through computer-generated (CG) images or visualizations. To explore potential issues associated with using CG imagery for conveying scenarios of habitat restoration we performed experiments in the Puget Sound, Washington region in which we asked whether respondents could differentiate among images of varying seagrass density and spatial extent, and if the presence of humans in the images affected these assessments and their perceptions of ecosystem health. Respondents were able to grossly determine relative seagrass density in the images, but only about 50% of them were able to determine this perfectly. Most errors occurred when the difference in density was small: approximately 20shootm-2. The ability to correctly distinguish among images was inversely correlated with educational level. The presence or absence of people in the imagery did not influence the ability of respondents to correctly sort images, nor did it affect perceptions of ecosystem "health". Taken together, the results suggest that such imagery can be useful as basis for communicating large differences in ecological conditions, but may be less informative as means to convey marginal changes in ecological structure. This work begins to highlight some of the pitfalls, but also the promise, of the use of CG visualization in marine resource management. © 2013.

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