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News Article | October 26, 2016
Site: www.eurekalert.org

Perched among the branches and needles of California's redwood forests are nestled wayfaring hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus). A migratory species capable of traveling hundreds of miles, hoary bats may wander throughout western North America before settling into California's north coast...to sleep. While it's not unusual for some species of bat to migrate or other species to hibernate, it is unusual to find a species of bat that does both. Hoary bats are one of North America's largest bats at 5 inches in length and also one of the continent's most distinguished with its frosted fur for which it takes its name. Researchers with the U.S. Forest Service's Pacific Southwest Research Station have documented the first recorded evidence of hoary bats going into a state of torpor, or hibernation. Published earlier this month in Scientific Reports and just in time for National Bat Week, Oct. 24-31, "First Direct Evidence of Long-distance Seasonal Movements and Hibernation in a Migratory Bat" reports newly discovered behaviors in hoary bats. "It's commonly assumed that species that migrate do so to reach areas that allow them to continue feeding and remain somewhat active throughout the winter," said lead author Ted Weller, an ecologist with the Forest Service. "But our findings surprised even our own research team by showing that hoary bats spend much of the winter in hibernation." In September 2014, Weller and his colleagues tagged several bats within Humboldt Redwoods State Park with GPS tracking devices and another group of bats with a device that monitored light levels, body temperatures and activity, which allowed them to understand how bats responded to varying weather conditions. "While such tracking and monitoring technology has existed for a while, it hasn't been until somewhat recently that these units were made small enough to be affixed to animals of this size," Weller said. A month later, two of the GPS-equipped bats were recaptured and their data downloaded. One of the bats met the expected behavior of "site fidelity," with its longest single-day trek being about 4 miles from the initial capture site. The second bat was surprising in that it had produced multiple single-day treks ranging from 30 to 45 miles. However, it was the third bat recaptured several months later that produced the most intriguing behavior. For the month of October, Bat VHF5 flew more than 600 miles, making a loop into southern Oregon, then into interior California, then over to the Nevada-California border, and then back again into interior California. "It's hard to determine what led to such a journey," Weller said. "Was he seeking favorable temperatures and humidity for roosting and foraging? Was he trying to intercept females to mate with as they migrated to their wintering grounds?" The monitoring devices attached to the other group of bats also offered new insights into the species. Two bats from that group were recaptured in spring, with one of the bat's devices having captured 224 days of data. Based on lowered body temperatures and inactivity, that bat exhibited the signs of being in a torpor state from November 2014 through April 2015, including a 40-day stretch without flying. Which again leads researchers to the question: Why would a species capable of migrating hibernate? The answer could lie within the bats' roosting habitat. "Hoary bats roost outside in trees as opposed to inside caves," Weller said. "It's possible that hoary bats are evolved to hibernate, but would freeze if they did so in their northern summer territories." The Redwoods, in particular, are ideal in that they offer an environment with lots of shelter, cool temperatures and plenty of moisture to reduce the risk of dehydration. Similar to other migratory species, understanding seasonal movements and wintering habits are essential for conservation efforts. And because most bat research is confined to summer when bats are most active, these findings are especially useful. "This research has provided us with a valuable look into the lives of hoary bats rarely before seen, and until now, never before documented to this extent," Weller said. "Knowing more about their lives outside of the summer months will help us better understand what steps might best promote their conservation." Research partners included Wildlife Veterinary Consulting out of Livermore, Colorado, the Swiss Ornithological Institute out of Sempach, Switzerland, Bat Conservation International out of Austin, Texas, the U.S. Geological Survey Science Center out of Fort Collins, Colorado. USDA is an equal opportunity provider, employer and lender.


News Article | October 25, 2016
Site: phys.org

While it's not unusual for some species of bat to migrate or other species to hibernate, it is unusual to find a species of bat that does both. Hoary bats are one of North America's largest bats at 5 inches in length and also one of the continent's most distinguished with its frosted fur for which it takes its name. Researchers with the U.S. Forest Service's Pacific Southwest Research Station have documented the first recorded evidence of hoary bats going into a state of torpor, or hibernation. Published earlier this month in Scientific Reports and just in time for National Bat Week, Oct. 24-31, "First Direct Evidence of Long-distance Seasonal Movements and Hibernation in a Migratory Bat" reports newly discovered behaviors in hoary bats. "It's commonly assumed that species that migrate do so to reach areas that allow them to continue feeding and remain somewhat active throughout the winter," said lead author Ted Weller, an ecologist with the Forest Service. "But our findings surprised even our own research team by showing that hoary bats spend much of the winter in hibernation." In September 2014, Weller and his colleagues tagged several bats within Humboldt Redwoods State Park with GPS tracking devices and another group of bats with a device that monitored light levels, body temperatures and activity, which allowed them to understand how bats responded to varying weather conditions. "While such tracking and monitoring technology has existed for a while, it hasn't been until somewhat recently that these units were made small enough to be affixed to animals of this size," Weller said. A month later, two of the GPS-equipped bats were recaptured and their data downloaded. One of the bats met the expected behavior of "site fidelity," with its longest single-day trek being about 4 miles from the initial capture site. The second bat was surprising in that it had produced multiple single-day treks ranging from 30 to 45 miles. However, it was the third bat recaptured several months later that produced the most intriguing behavior. For the month of October, Bat VHF5 flew more than 600 miles, making a loop into southern Oregon, then into interior California, then over to the Nevada-California border, and then back again into interior California. "It's hard to determine what led to such a journey," Weller said. "Was he seeking favorable temperatures and humidity for roosting and foraging? Was he trying to intercept females to mate with as they migrated to their wintering grounds?" The monitoring devices attached to the other group of bats also offered new insights into the species. Two bats from that group were recaptured in spring, with one of the bat's devices having captured 224 days of data. Based on lowered body temperatures and inactivity, that bat exhibited the signs of being in a torpor state from November 2014 through April 2015, including a 40-day stretch without flying. Which again leads researchers to the question: Why would a species capable of migrating hibernate? The answer could lie within the bats' roosting habitat. "Hoary bats roost outside in trees as opposed to inside caves," Weller said. "It's possible that hoary bats are evolved to hibernate, but would freeze if they did so in their northern summer territories." The Redwoods, in particular, are ideal in that they offer an environment with lots of shelter, cool temperatures and plenty of moisture to reduce the risk of dehydration. Similar to other migratory species, understanding seasonal movements and wintering habits are essential for conservation efforts. And because most bat research is confined to summer when bats are most active, these findings are especially useful. "This research has provided us with a valuable look into the lives of hoary bats rarely before seen, and until now, never before documented to this extent," Weller said. "Knowing more about their lives outside of the summer months will help us better understand what steps might best promote their conservation." Explore further: What does the Hawaiian lava-tube bat tell us about bat paleobiogeography? More information: Theodore J. Weller et al, First Direct Evidence of Long-distance Seasonal Movements and Hibernation in a Migratory Bat, Scientific Reports (2016). DOI: 10.1038/srep34585


News Article | October 30, 2016
Site: www.sciencedaily.com

Perched among the branches and needles of California's redwood forests are nestled wayfaring hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus). A migratory species capable of traveling hundreds of miles, hoary bats may wander throughout western North America before settling into California's north coast...to sleep. While it's not unusual for some species of bat to migrate or other species to hibernate, it is unusual to find a species of bat that does both. Hoary bats are one of North America's largest bats at 5 inches in length and also one of the continent's most distinguished with its frosted fur for which it takes its name. Researchers with the U.S. Forest Service's Pacific Southwest Research Station have documented the first recorded evidence of hoary bats going into a state of torpor, or hibernation. Published earlier this month in Scientific Reports and just in time for National Bat Week, Oct. 24-31, "First Direct Evidence of Long-distance Seasonal Movements and Hibernation in a Migratory Bat" reports newly discovered behaviors in hoary bats. "It's commonly assumed that species that migrate do so to reach areas that allow them to continue feeding and remain somewhat active throughout the winter," said lead author Ted Weller, an ecologist with the Forest Service. "But our findings surprised even our own research team by showing that hoary bats spend much of the winter in hibernation." In September 2014, Weller and his colleagues tagged several bats within Humboldt Redwoods State Park with GPS tracking devices and another group of bats with a device that monitored light levels, body temperatures and activity, which allowed them to understand how bats responded to varying weather conditions. "While such tracking and monitoring technology has existed for a while, it hasn't been until somewhat recently that these units were made small enough to be affixed to animals of this size," Weller said. A month later, two of the GPS-equipped bats were recaptured and their data downloaded. One of the bats met the expected behavior of "site fidelity," with its longest single-day trek being about 4 miles from the initial capture site. The second bat was surprising in that it had produced multiple single-day treks ranging from 30 to 45 miles. However, it was the third bat recaptured several months later that produced the most intriguing behavior. For the month of October, Bat VHF5 flew more than 600 miles, making a loop into southern Oregon, then into interior California, then over to the Nevada-California border, and then back again into interior California. "It's hard to determine what led to such a journey," Weller said. "Was he seeking favorable temperatures and humidity for roosting and foraging? Was he trying to intercept females to mate with as they migrated to their wintering grounds?" The monitoring devices attached to the other group of bats also offered new insights into the species. Two bats from that group were recaptured in spring, with one of the bat's devices having captured 224 days of data. Based on lowered body temperatures and inactivity, that bat exhibited the signs of being in a torpor state from November 2014 through April 2015, including a 40-day stretch without flying. Which again leads researchers to the question: Why would a species capable of migrating hibernate? The answer could lie within the bats' roosting habitat. "Hoary bats roost outside in trees as opposed to inside caves," Weller said. "It's possible that hoary bats are evolved to hibernate, but would freeze if they did so in their northern summer territories." The Redwoods, in particular, are ideal in that they offer an environment with lots of shelter, cool temperatures and plenty of moisture to reduce the risk of dehydration. Similar to other migratory species, understanding seasonal movements and wintering habits are essential for conservation efforts. And because most bat research is confined to summer when bats are most active, these findings are especially useful. "This research has provided us with a valuable look into the lives of hoary bats rarely before seen, and until now, never before documented to this extent," Weller said. "Knowing more about their lives outside of the summer months will help us better understand what steps might best promote their conservation."


News Article | November 1, 2016
Site: www.eurekalert.org

Albany, Calif. - Sometimes in the cramped environs of U.S. cities every inch counts, especially if attempting to make space for nature. City planners and urban foresters now have a resource to more precisely select tree species whose growth will be a landscaping dream instead of a maintenance nightmare. The U.S. Forest Service's Pacific Southwest Research Station recently published a technical manual and launched the most extensive database available cataloging urban trees with their projected growth tailored to specific geographic regions. "Knowing a tree's maximum size can avoid future conflicts between roots and sidewalks or branches and power lines," said Greg McPherson, research forester for the Forest Service and lead author of the technical report and database. The products are a culmination of 14 years of work, analyzing more than 14,000 trees across the United States. Whereas prior growth models typically featured only a few species specific to a given city or region, the newly released database features 171 distinct species across 16 U.S. climate zones. The trees studied also spanned a range of ages with data collected from a consistent set of measurements. "There are very few studies, if any in the world, that can compare to this in terms of scope with regard to the number of trees studied, the species analyzed, the geographic range and ages, and so forth," McPherson said. Advances in statistical modeling also have given the projected growth dimensions a level of accuracy never before seen. Moving beyond just calculating a tree's diameter or age to determine expected growth, the research incorporates 365 sets of tree growth equations to project growth. "Although tree growth is the result of complex processes, growth equations capture changes in tree size with age in a surprisingly simple and accurate way," said Natalie van Doorn, a research urban ecologist with the Forest Service and co-author on the study. In addition to predicted tree growth, the manual provides species-specific data on foliar biomass, or amount of foliage, that is critical to projecting uptake of air pollutants. Written in a way to be accessible to non-technical users, the technical report gives step-by-step instructions on how to use the equations to calculate tree dimensions, biomass, carbon storage and other features of interest to urban foresters. "The research and publication were done with the urban forester and city planner in mind," van Doorn said. "Urban trees benefit communities in innumerable ways, and it's this information that can help communities make the most of these natural resources." USDA is an equal opportunity provider, employer and lender.


News Article | November 4, 2016
Site: www.sciencedaily.com

Sometimes in the cramped environs of U.S. cities every inch counts, especially if attempting to make space for nature. City planners and urban foresters now have a resource to more precisely select tree species whose growth will be a landscaping dream instead of a maintenance nightmare. The U.S. Forest Service's Pacific Southwest Research Station recently published a technical manual and launched the most extensive database available cataloging urban trees with their projected growth tailored to specific geographic regions. "Knowing a tree's maximum size can avoid future conflicts between roots and sidewalks or branches and power lines," said Greg McPherson, research forester for the Forest Service and lead author of the technical report and database. The products are a culmination of 14 years of work, analyzing more than 14,000 trees across the United States. Whereas prior growth models typically featured only a few species specific to a given city or region, the newly released database features 171 distinct species across 16 U.S. climate zones. The trees studied also spanned a range of ages with data collected from a consistent set of measurements. "There are very few studies, if any in the world, that can compare to this in terms of scope with regard to the number of trees studied, the species analyzed, the geographic range and ages, and so forth," McPherson said. Advances in statistical modeling also have given the projected growth dimensions a level of accuracy never before seen. Moving beyond just calculating a tree's diameter or age to determine expected growth, the research incorporates 365 sets of tree growth equations to project growth. "Although tree growth is the result of complex processes, growth equations capture changes in tree size with age in a surprisingly simple and accurate way," said Natalie van Doorn, a research urban ecologist with the Forest Service and co-author on the study. In addition to predicted tree growth, the manual provides species-specific data on foliar biomass, or amount of foliage, that is critical to projecting uptake of air pollutants. Written in a way to be accessible to non-technical users, the technical report gives step-by-step instructions on how to use the equations to calculate tree dimensions, biomass, carbon storage and other features of interest to urban foresters. "The research and publication were done with the urban forester and city planner in mind," van Doorn said. "Urban trees benefit communities in innumerable ways, and it's this information that can help communities make the most of these natural resources."


News Article | October 27, 2016
Site: www.techtimes.com

A new study has revealed the rare hibernation habits of hoary bats. This is significant as bats are known either for migratory habits or hibernation habits. Here one bat species, Lasiurus cinereus, is showing both behaviors and that is something unusual. Known to travel hundreds of miles, these bats - one of the largest in North America - have an average 5-inch length. Their frosted fur gets them the name hoary bats. They are mostly spotted in the redwood forests of California. The unique hibernation habit was unveiled by researchers attached to the Pacific Southwest Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. Published in Scientific Reports and coinciding with National Bat Week, the report explains the newly discovered hibernation and seasonal movements in hoary bats. "It's commonly assumed that species that migrate do so to reach areas that allow them to continue feeding and remain somewhat active throughout the winter," said lead author Ted Weller, an ecologist with the Forest Service. Noting the winter hibernation habit of hoary bats has been a surprise, the author said the observation efforts lasted for two years. The test was conducted on a few bats at the Humboldt Redwoods State Park in California using GPS devices to tag some bats. Another batch of bats were tagged with data loggers that included a light sensor to measure the levels of light and an accelerometer that recorded the bats' activity. Ambient temperature and the bats' body temperature were also measured. The data would indicate when bats were active or inactive and allow researchers to comprehend how the bats responded to the changing seasons and weather conditions. Two bats were recaptured after a month for data download. One GPS-tagged bat showed an expected behavior of a maximum of 4 miles for a one-day trek from where it was first captured. The second one had multiple single-day treks that stretched to 45 miles to its credit. Several months later, a third bat was captured, and it was what surprised the researchers the most. The bat covered 600 miles of distance to touch destinations like southern Oregon, interior California and the Nevada-California border before coming back to interior California. Weller said it is hard to say what made it travel like that. The hibernation habits were illustrated by the data loggers attached to the other bat group. Data from one of the recaptured bats showed inactivity and a cooler body temperature from November 2014 to April 2015, indicating that the bat was in hibernation during that period. The scientists are now attempting to link hibernation habits to the roosting habits of hoary bats. "Hoary bats roost outside in trees as opposed to inside caves," Weller said and added that they can hibernate but may freeze doing so in their northern summer territories. On the contrary, redwood trees offer them shelter, tolerable temperatures and a reduced risk of getting dehydrated due to lots of moisture. The study also assumes significance in planning conservation efforts as the data on bats' migratory habits, movement, and habits during the cold season are very useful. © 2017 Tech Times, All rights reserved. Do not reproduce without permission.


News Article | November 14, 2016
Site: www.eurekalert.org

While climate contributes strongly to fire activity in the Sierra Nevada mountains of the western U.S., human activity, starting well before European contact, has also played an important part in the severity, frequency and sheer numbers of forest fires occurring in the area, according to researchers. "Initially, we did work to see if we could develop long-lead forecasts for fire in the area -- six to 18 months in the future -- using climate patterns such as El Nino," said Alan H. Taylor, professor of geography, Penn State. "This would be a significant help because we could place resources in the west if forecasts indicated it would be dry and the southeast would be wet. However, the climate relationships with fire did not consistently track." Taylor, working with Valerie Trouet, associate professor of dendrochronology, University of Arizona, merged a tree-ring-based record of Sierra Nevada fire history with a 20th century record based on annual area burned to create a record of fires spanning 415 years, from 1600 to 2015. While year-to-year fire variability was influenced by climate throughout that time, they found that large decadal-scale shifts in the Sierra Nevada fire regime were related to changes in human activity. "Large shifts in the fire record corresponded with socio-ecological change, and not climate change, and socio-ecological conditions amplified and buffered fire response to climate," the researchers report in today's (Nov. 14) issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. The researchers uncovered four time periods, each possessing their own fire regime characteristics that, while impacted by climate, were also heavily influenced by human land use patterns. The earliest fire regime period, dating from 1600 to 1775, corresponded to the time before Europeans came to the California area. During this time, Native Americans used fire to improve the production of acorns, tubers, shrubs and game such as deer. Their burn regime also controlled the amount of fuel on the forest floor. Native Americans who used the Sierra Nevada forests created a mosaic of small burned areas interwoven with unburned forest. Early fires, because they were more frequent with less fuel build-up, were "good" fires. They burned through the forest, consumed understory fuels and left the majority of trees unharmed. The Native American mosaic of burned and unburned area prevented fires from continuously spreading. From 1776 to 1865 the second fire regime, characterized by Spanish colonialism and the depopulation of Native Americans in the area shows more land burned. European settlers brought diseases against which Native Americans had no immunity and the population suffered. The Spanish built a string of missions in California beginning in 1769 and relocated remaining Native Americans to the mission areas. In 1793, there was a ban on burning to preserve forage, disrupting the pre-colonial Native American burning practices. The incidence of fires became more sensitive to drought and the fire regime changed, creating a time when fires were largest and most closely coupled with climate. "Before the Native American die off, fires burned 4.5 times more area than they do today," said Taylor. "After the Native American depopulation fires burned 8 times more area than they do today." The third fire period is from 1866 to 1903 and was initiated by the California gold rush, when thousands of people poured into the area. Settlement by large numbers of new immigrants began to break up the forest fuel and the creation of large herds of animals, especially sheep, removed large amounts of understory and changed the fire regime. The fourth fire period began in 1904 and is linked to the federal government's policy of fire suppression on government lands. The reason pre-colonial and Spanish colonial fire levels were so much higher than today is that the current fire regime is one of suppressions with an extremely low incidence of fires compared to the past. However, suppression over the last century has allowed fuel to build up on the forest floor and opened the door for "bad" fires that destroy the forest canopy and burn large areas of land. "Fire was locked in with decadal temperature variation until about 1860, after which time the relationship decays until the 1980s, when fire tracks temperature again," said Taylor. The decay occurred because people changed the landscape through grazing and then changed the forests by suppressing fire. Today's fires, according to Taylor, can be "bad" fires because a century or more of fire suppression has created a vast store of fuel to accumulate on the forest floor, allowing fires to burn long enough and hot enough to kill the forest canopy. These fires are also harder to fight. "It is important for people to understand that fires in the past were not necessarily the same as they are today," said Taylor. "They were mostly surface fires. Today we see more canopy-killing fires." Climate is still an important part of the regional fire regime. Extremely dry times will increase fire prevalence and extremely wet periods will decrease fires occurrence. But climate alone, in an inhabited area, cannot predict the fire regime. The actions of people must also be considered. "We did eventually develop an understanding of how climate patterns could be used to develop long-lead forecasts," said Taylor. "But there has to be a consideration of both people and climate to predict and plan for future fire activity." Also working on this project were Carl N. Skinner, geographer, Pacific Southwest Research Station, U.S. Forest Service and Scott L. Stephens, professor of environmental science, policy and management, University of California, Berkeley. The U.S. Forest Service supported this research.


News Article | November 2, 2016
Site: www.rdmag.com

Planting trees in urban spaces just got a lot easier. A new database has been unveiled, which is aimed at helping urban foresters find the perfect spruce, elm and oak. The U.S. Forest Service’s Pacific Southwest Research Station recently published a technical manual and an extensive database cataloging urban trees with their projected growth tailored to specific geographic regions, a tool that could be utilized by urban planners across the country. “Knowing a tree's maximum size can avoid future conflicts between roots and sidewalks or branches and power lines,” said Greg McPherson, research forester for the Forest Service and lead author of the technical report and database, in a statement. The database is a culmination of research on urban tree growth data between 1998 and 2012 from 17 cities in 13 states, including Arizona, California, Colorado, Florida, Hawaii, Idaho, Indiana, Minnesota, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, Oregon and South Carolina. “There are very few studies, if any in the world, that can compare to this in terms of scope with regard to the number of trees studied, the species analyzed, the geographic range and ages and so forth,” McPherson said. Over the 14 years, the scientists recorded data from a consistent set of measurements on over 14,000 trees to develop an extensive list of growth equations for 171 distinct species of trees. The database includes the raw data, growth equations, coefficients, application information for each species’ volume and dry-weight biomass equations for urban and rural forest trees and an expanded list of biomass density factors for common urban tree species. The research team has also taken advantage of advances in statistical modeling, which has given the projected growth dimensions an enhanced level of accuracy by incorporating 365 sets of tree growth equations to project growth. “Although tree growth is the result of complex processes, growth equations capture changes in tree size with age in a surprisingly simple and accurate way,” said Natalie van Doorn, a research urban ecologist with the Forest Service and co-author on the study, in a statement. Each of the 365 sets of allometric equations consists of eight equations for each of the approximately 20 most abundant species in each of the 16 climate regions. For example, information can be found about the red maple in Central Florida, apple trees in the Midwest and the blue spruce in the north. One of the benefits for city foresters in using the database is they can assist in projecting the costs for pruning and removing trees, which tend to increase with tree size. It can also provide knowledge of maximum tree size, which helps inform tree selection to avoid conflicts between tree roots and nearby sidewalks or between crowns and utility lines. The Urban Tree Database and Allometric Equations can be viewed here.


Railsback S.F.,Humboldt State University | Harvey B.C.,Pacific Southwest Research Station
Trends in Ecology and Evolution | Year: 2013

Many ecologists believe that there is a lack of foraging theory that works in community contexts, for populations of unique individuals each making trade-offs between food and risk that are subject to feedbacks from behavior of others. Such theory is necessary to reproduce the trait-mediated trophic interactions now recognized as widespread and strong. Game theory can address feedbacks but does not provide foraging theory for unique individuals in variable environments. 'State- and prediction-based theory' (SPT) is a new approach that combines existing trade-off methods with routine updating: individuals regularly predict future food availability and risk from current conditions to optimize a fitness measure. SPT can reproduce a variety of realistic foraging behaviors and trait-mediated trophic interactions with feedbacks, even when the environment is unpredictable. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Rising temperatures can create stressful and possibly lethal stream habitat for native trout. To help understand the interactive effects of climate warming and livestock grazing on water temperature, researchers from the Pacific Southwest Research Station (PSW) and University of California, Berkeley, conducted a six-year study documenting high elevation water temperatures in areas of the Golden Trout Wilderness. The wilderness area is located within the Sequoia and Inyo national forests in California and was designated Wilderness primarily to protect the native California golden trout, the state's official fish. To understand the impact of land use on water temperature, researchers measured streamside vegetation and monitored water temperature in three meadow streams where livestock had three different types of stream access between 2008 and 2013. Key findings include: In the study, researchers found that land use can interact with climate change to intensify warming in high elevation meadow streams, and protecting and restoring streamside vegetation can help keep streams cool for the California golden trout. "Our study clearly shows the role of streamside vegetation in maintaining low stream temperatures," said Kathleen Matthews, a PSW research scientist and co-author of the study. "Enhancing and protecting streamside vegetation may ensure that streams have the resiliency to withstand future climate warming that can lead to stressful and possibly lethal stream temperatures for golden trout." The paper, "Mediating Water Temperature Increases Due to Livestock and Global Change in High Elevation Meadow Streams of the Golden Trout Wilderness," was released in the journal PLOS One.

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