Pacific, United States
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Cheney D.,Pacific Shellfish Institute | Langan R.,University of New Hampshire | Heasman K.,Cawthron Institute | Friedman B.,Santa Barbara Mariculture Co. | Davis J.,Taylor Shellfish Farms
Marine Technology Society Journal | Year: 2010

Marine shellfish or bivalve aquaculture accounts for a large fraction of the total world production of cultured seafood, with production trailing only freshwater fish (mainly carps and similar species) and aquatic plants. However, growth of nearshore bivalve aquaculture is increasingly constrained by space, economics, human health, and environmental concerns. Offshore or open ocean waters offer a tremendous potential for expansion of the shellfish farming. Developments to date indicate that it is feasible to install, to maintain, and to operate bivalve culture systems in high-energy offshore waters with production rates often equaling or exceeding nearshore environments. Although production to date is limited and a number of technical, operational, economic, and social challenges must be addressed, a number of small to large-scale bivalve culture systems are in development or production. This article reviews the current production of bivalve shellfish, describes characteristics through case examples of offshore shellfish culture system, and assesses the future potential of this farming method.


Ng T.Y.-T.,Hong Kong University of Science and Technology | Ng T.Y.-T.,McMaster University | Chuang C.-Y.,Hong Kong University of Science and Technology | Chuang C.-Y.,Texas A&M University | And 4 more authors.
Marine Ecology Progress Series | Year: 2010

Oysters can accumulate cadmium (Cd) in very high concentrations in their tissues and there is now increasing concern for the seafood safety of farmed oysters worldwide. Bioaccumulation and biokinetics of Cd (dietary assimilation, uptake from the dissolved phase, and efflux) were measured in different populations of Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas collected along the west coast of the USA in 2 different seasons. Triploid juvenile oysters were first transplanted to 5 Washington sites and 1 Oregon site for 3 mo, then transported back to the laboratory for tissue Cd measurements and bio-kinetic experiments. A second group of seed oysters was collected from California and Washington for additional analysis. Oysters from all sites had Cd concentrations lower than the food standard limit and there was spatial difference in tissue Cd concentrations. A significant fraction of Cd was associated with metallothionein-like proteins, implying that the oysters can detoxify Cd by induction of metallothionein. The difference in Cd dietary assimilation (using diatoms as a food source) and efflux in oysters transplanted to different locations was not significant. The uptake rate constants for Cd from the dissolved phase, however, differed markedly among the transplanted populations, and appeared to be affected by the oysters' clearance rate, depending on the population. This uptake rate was also negatively affected by the size of oysters. Dietary assimilation of Cd was comparable at diatom food concentrations below 2 to 5 mg l1 , and was lower with ingested sediments than with diatoms. Measurements of Cd kinetics in different populations of Pacific oysters under a variety of environmental conditions provide an insight into the Cd accumulation in this commercially important species. Copyright © 2010 Inter-Research.


Newton J.,NANOOS Northwest Association of Networked Ocean | Newton J.,University of Washington | Martin D.,NANOOS Northwest Association of Networked Ocean | Martin D.,University of Washington | And 10 more authors.
OCEANS 2012 MTS/IEEE: Harnessing the Power of the Ocean | Year: 2012

Ocean acidification has serious implications for the economy and ecology of the Pacific Northwest United States. A combination of factors renders the Pacific coast and coastal estuaries particularly vulnerable to acidified water. The Northwest Association of Networked Ocean Observing Systems, NANOOS, the Regional Association of the United States Integrated Ocean Observing System, IOOS, is set up to deliver coastal data to serve the needs and decisions of its region. NANOOS has worked through IOOS with the NOAA Ocean Acidification Program, NOAA PMEL, academic, local, and commercial and tribal shellfish growing partners to provide existing observing assets to accommodate pCO2 and pH sensors, to deliver data streams from these and other providers, including that from sensors in shellfish hatcheries, and to network this capacity regionally and nationally. This increase in data access regarding OA is of value to scientists, managers, educators, and shellfish growers who are especially appreciative of the near real-time readouts of the data, upon which to make hatchery and remote setting decisions. This is a regional example of NANOOS and IOOS contributions to societal impacts from ocean acidification. © 2012 IEEE.


Barton A.,Whiskey Creek Shellfish Hatchery | Waldbusser G.G.,Oregon State University | Feely R.A.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | Weisberg S.B.,Southern California Coastal Water Research Project Authority | And 9 more authors.
Oceanography | Year: 2015

In 2007, the US west coast shellfish industry began to feel the effects of unprecedented levels of larval mortality in commercial hatcheries producing the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. Subsequently, researchers at Whiskey Creek Shellfish Hatchery, working with academic and government scientists, showed a high correlation between aragonite saturation state (Ωarag) of inflowing seawater and survival of larval groups, clearly linking increased CO2 to hatchery failures. This work led the Pacific Coast Shellfish Growers Association (PCSGA) to instrument shellfish hatcheries and coastal waters, establishing a monitoring network in collaboration with university researchers and the US Integrated Ocean Observing System. Analytical developments, such as the ability to monitor Ωarag in real time, have greatly improved the industry’s understanding of carbonate chemistry and its variability and informed the development of commercial-scale water treatment systems. These treatment systems have generally proven effective, resulting in billions of additional oyster larvae supplied to Pacific Northwest oyster growers. However, significant challenges remain, and a multifaceted approach, including selective breeding of oyster stocks, expansion of hatchery capacity, continued monitoring of coastal water chemistry, and improved understanding of biological responses will all be essential to the survival of the US west coast shellfish industry.


Cheney D.P.,Pacific Shellfish Institute
Journal of the World Aquaculture Society | Year: 2010

Shellfish aquaculture has had a long tradition in Asia, Europe, and the western USA, but it is only within the past century that significant cultural and handling practices have been identified, developed, and introduced to improve and enhance shellfish food quality. Shellfish are now being marketed with an emphasis on product quality, product variety, reduced human health risk, and improved ease of preparation. Aquacultured bivalve shellfish products must now have the food quality characteristics of other high-quality seafood products and must meet accepted standards of taste, color, texture, and odor. This review summarizes current efforts within the shellfish industry to improve the food quality of aquacultured bivalve shellfish in the following focus areas: (i) genetic selection and controlled breeding; (ii) production tools; (iii) food safety protection and enhancement; and (iv) processing and creative marketing efforts, with major emphasis on the US shellfish aquaculture sector. © Copyright by the World Aquaculture Society 2010.


Saurel C.,Danish Shellfish Center | Ferreira J.G.,New University of Lisbon | Cheney D.,Pacific Shellfish Institute | Suhrbier A.,Pacific Shellfish Institute | And 3 more authors.
Aquaculture Environment Interactions | Year: 2014

The carrying capacity of a 2.4 ha Manila clam Venerupis philippinarum farm, using mechanised harvesting in North Puget Sound,WA, USA,was determined by means of an ecological model; the results were also scaled to Puget Sound as a whole. An individual Manila clam growth model was developed, calibrated and validated for the commercial farm, together with a macroalgal model to simulate fouling of the predator nets by seaweeds. Both models are based on our previously developed generic frameworks for bivalves (AquaShell) and seaweeds (AquaFrond). For the most part, equations are taken or adapted from the literature and parameterised for the studied site. The individual models were incorporated into the Farm Aquaculture Resource Management (FARM) model to simulate the production cycle, environmental effects and economic optimisation of culture. Both the individual and farm-scale models are built using object-oriented programming. Potential effects of clam production on seaweed growth were analysed and found to be about 10% above background. The FARM model was also used to classify the farm area with respect to its eutrophication status, by applying the Assessment of Estuarine Trophic Status (ASSETS) model. Farm production ranging from 32 to 45 t of clams per year is well reproduced by the model. Harvest yield is very sensitive to mortality, and profitability is very sensitive to seed costs. Manila clam culture provides a potential nutrient credit trading value of over US $41000 per year, over 1000 Population-Equivalents (PEQ, i.e. loading from humans or equivalent loading from agriculture or industry) with respect to eutrophication control. The potential income would add 21% to the annual profit ($194 900) from clam sales. A scaling exercise to the whole of Puget Sound is in reasonable agreement with declared production (difference of 16%), and suggests that clams provide a significant ecosystem service, of the order of 90 000 PEQ per year. © The authors 2014.

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