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Christoforou A.,University of Sydney | Snowdon W.,Pacific Research Center for the Prevention of Obesity and Non communicable Diseases | Laesango N.,Ministry of Health | Vatucawaqa S.,Nauru Public Health Center | And 7 more authors.
Heart Lung and Circulation

Background: Most populations are consuming too much salt which is the main contributor of high blood pressure, a leading risk factor of cardiovascular disease and stroke. The South Pacific Office of the World Health Organization has been facilitating the development of salt reduction strategies in Pacific Island Countries and areas (PICs). The objective of this analysis was to review progress to date and identify regional actions needed to support PICs and ensure they achieve the global target to reduce population salt intake by 30% by 2025. Methods: Relevant available national food, health and non-communicable disease (NCD) plans from all 22 PICs were reviewed. NCD co-ordinators provided updates and relayed experiences through semi-structured interviews. All activities were systematically categorised according to an existing salt reduction framework for the development of salt reduction strategies. Results: Salt reduction consultations had been held in 14 countries and final strategies or action plans developed in nine of these, with drafts available in a further three. Three other countries had integrated salt reduction into NCD strategic plans. Baseline monitoring of salt intake had been undertaken in three countries, salt levels in foods in nine countries and salt knowledge, attitude and behaviour surveys in four countries. Most countries were at early stages of implementation and identified limited resources as a barrier to action. Planned salt reduction strategies included work with food industry or importers, implementing regional salt reduction targets, reducing salt levels in school and hospital meals, behaviour change campaigns, and monitoring and evaluation. Conclusions: There had been good progress on salt reduction planning in PICs. The need for increased capacity to effectively implement agreed activities, supported by regional standards and the establishment of improved monitoring systems, were identified as important steps to ensure the potential cardiovascular health benefits of salt reduction could be fully realised in the region. © 2014 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Source

Vandevijvere S.,University of Auckland | Monteiro C.,University of Sao Paulo | Krebs-Smith S.M.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Lee A.,Queensland University of Technology | And 7 more authors.
Obesity Reviews

Summary: INFORMAS (International Network for Food and Obesity/non-communicable diseases Research, Monitoring and Action Support) aims to monitor and benchmark the healthiness of food environments globally. In order to assess the impact of food environments on population diets, it is necessary to monitor population diet quality between countries and over time. This paper reviews existing data sources suitable for monitoring population diet quality, and assesses their strengths and limitations. A step-wise framework is then proposed for monitoring population diet quality. Food balance sheets (FBaS), household budget and expenditure surveys (HBES) and food intake surveys are all suitable methods for assessing population diet quality. In the proposed 'minimal' approach, national trends of food and energy availability can be explored using FBaS. In the 'expanded' and 'optimal' approaches, the dietary share of ultra-processed products is measured as an indicator of energy-dense, nutrient-poor diets using HBES and food intake surveys, respectively. In addition, it is proposed that pre-defined diet quality indices are used to score diets, and some of those have been designed for application within all three monitoring approaches. However, in order to enhance the value of global efforts to monitor diet quality, data collection methods and diet quality indicators need further development work. © 2013 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the International Association for the Study of Obesity. Source

Neal B.,University of Sydney | Sacks G.,Deakin University | Swinburn B.,Deakin University | Swinburn B.,University of Auckland | And 21 more authors.
Obesity Reviews

Summary: A food supply that delivers energy-dense products with high levels of salt, saturated fats and trans fats, in large portion sizes, is a major cause of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). The highly processed foods produced by large food corporations are primary drivers of increases in consumption of these adverse nutrients. The objective of this paper is to present an approach to monitoring food composition that can both document the extent of the problem and underpin novel actions to address it. The monitoring approach seeks to systematically collect information on high-level contextual factors influencing food composition and assess the energy density, salt, saturated fat, trans fats and portion sizes of highly processed foods for sale in retail outlets (with a focus on supermarkets and quick-service restaurants). Regular surveys of food composition are proposed across geographies and over time using a pragmatic, standardized methodology. Surveys have already been undertaken in several high- and middle-income countries, and the trends have been valuable in informing policy approaches. The purpose of collecting data is not to exhaustively document the composition of all foods in the food supply in each country, but rather to provide information to support governments, industry and communities to develop and enact strategies to curb food-related NCDs. © 2013 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the International Association for the Study of Obesity. Source

Lee A.,Queensland University of Technology | Mhurchu C.N.,University of Auckland | Sacks G.,Deakin University | Swinburn B.,University of Auckland | And 20 more authors.
Obesity Reviews

Summary: Food prices and food affordability are important determinants of food choices, obesity and non-communicable diseases. As governments around the world consider policies to promote the consumption of healthier foods, data on the relative price and affordability of foods, with a particular focus on the difference between 'less healthy' and 'healthy' foods and diets, are urgently needed. This paper briefly reviews past and current approaches to monitoring food prices, and identifies key issues affecting the development of practical tools and methods for food price data collection, analysis and reporting. A step-wise monitoring framework, including measurement indicators, is proposed. 'Minimal' data collection will assess the differential price of 'healthy' and 'less healthy' foods; 'expanded' monitoring will assess the differential price of 'healthy' and 'less healthy' diets; and the 'optimal' approach will also monitor food affordability, by taking into account household income. The monitoring of the price and affordability of 'healthy' and 'less healthy' foods and diets globally will provide robust data and benchmarks to inform economic and fiscal policy responses. Given the range of methodological, cultural and logistical challenges in this area, it is imperative that all aspects of the proposed monitoring framework are tested rigorously before implementation. © 2013 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the International Association for the Study of Obesity. Source

Swinburn B.,University of Auckland | Swinburn B.,Deakin University | Sacks G.,Deakin University | Vandevijvere S.,University of Auckland | And 19 more authors.
Obesity Reviews

Summary: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) dominate disease burdens globally and poor nutrition increasingly contributes to this global burden. Comprehensive monitoring of food environments, and evaluation of the impact of public and private sector policies on food environments is needed to strengthen accountability systems to reduce NCDs. The International Network for Food and Obesity/NCDs Research, Monitoring and Action Support (INFORMAS) is a global network of public-interest organizations and researchers that aims to monitor, benchmark and support public and private sector actions to create healthy food environments and reduce obesity, NCDs and their related inequalities. The INFORMAS framework includes two 'process' modules, that monitor the policies and actions of the public and private sectors, seven 'impact' modules that monitor the key characteristics of food environments and three 'outcome' modules that monitor dietary quality, risk factors and NCD morbidity and mortality. Monitoring frameworks and indicators have been developed for 10 modules to provide consistency, but allowing for stepwise approaches ('minimal', 'expanded', 'optimal') to data collection and analysis. INFORMAS data will enable benchmarking of food environments between countries, and monitoring of progress over time within countries. Through monitoring and benchmarking, INFORMAS will strengthen the accountability systems needed to help reduce the burden of obesity, NCDs and their related inequalities. © 2013 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the International Association for the Study of Obesity. Source

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