Ansan, South Korea
Ansan, South Korea

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Jang D.,Ocean Policy Institute | Kang G.,Ocean Policy Institute | Kwon M.-S.,Ocean Policy Institute | Park H.-S.,Pacific Ocean Research Center | And 2 more authors.
Ocean and Polar Research | Year: 2013

The purpose of this study is to demonstrate, through case studies, the usefulness of utilizing local R&D centers under science and technology ODA programs. For the past few decades, advanced countries have supported ODA projects of developing countries, but there have been negative opinions regarding the results. Through a case study of the black pearl cultivation project between the Korea Institute of Ocean Science & Technology and Micronesia, this study explains the usefulness of actively utilizing Korean R&D centers established and operational in recipient countries. Although black pearl cultivation is not an ODA project, the case study offers valuable insights as it is operated in a similar form and thus highly applicable to future projects. Based on the case study, four implications were derived to ensure the successful operations of science and technology ODA projects in the future. First, there is a need to improve relevance by making use of the technological capacities of local R&D institutes to develop projects that reflect the needs of recipient and donor countries. Second, trust must be established with local communities over the long term in order to enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of project operations. Third, the proportion of science and technology ODA projects must be expanded to acquire sustainability, and more support should be granted to ODA projects involving marine resources, which are an advantage for countries of Micronesia. Lastly, the locals should be offered employment opportunities and regular training programs to allow for the actual transfer of knowledge instead of mere techniques. The implications derived in this study will prove useful in pursuing science and technology ODA projects, especially with Micronesia.


Choi D.H.,Marine Biotechnology Research Division | Noh J.H.,Marine Ecosystem Research Division | Ahn S.M.,Marine Ecosystem Research Division | Lee C.M.,Ocean Policy Institute | And 4 more authors.
Ocean and Polar Research | Year: 2013

In order to understand phytoplankton and bacterial distribution in tropical coral reef ecosystems in relation to the mangrove community, their biomass and activities were measured in the sea waters of the Chuuk and the Kosrae lagoons located in Micronesia. Chlorophyll a and bacterial abundance showed maximal values in the seawater near the mangrove forests, and then steeply decreased as the distance increased from the mangrove forests, indicating that environmental conditions for these microorganisms changed greatly in lagoon waters. Together with chlorophyll a, abundance of Synechococcus and phototrophic picoeukaryotes and a variety of indicator pigments for dinoflagellates, diatoms, green algae and cryptophytes also showed similar spatial distribution patterns, suggesting that phytoplankton assemblages respond to the environmental gradient by changing community compositions. In addition, primary production and bacterial production were also highest in the bay surrounded by mangrove forest and lowest outside of the lagoon. These results suggest that mangrove waters play an important role in energy production and nutrient cycling in tropical coasts, undoubtedly receiving large inputs of organic matter from shore vegetation such as mangroves. However, the steep decrease of biomass and production of phytoplankton and heterotrophic bacteria within a short distance from the bay to the level of oligotrophic waters indicates that the effect of mangrove waters does not extend far away.


Lee D.-W.,Pacific Ocean Research Center | Abu Affan M.D.,King Abdulaziz University | Lee H.-Y.,Seowon University | Ma C.W.,Korea University | And 3 more authors.
Ocean and Polar Research | Year: 2013

One of the most important challenges facing the Spirulina mass cultivation industry is to find a way to reduce the high production costs involved in production. Although the most commercial medium (Zarrouk's medium) for Spirulina cultivation is too expensive to use, it contains higher amount of NaHCO3 (16.80 g L-1), trace metals and vitamin solutions. The purpose of this study was to increase the efficiency of Spirulina platensis biomass production by developing a low-cost culture medium at an isolated tropical island such as Chuuk State, Federated States of Micronesia (FSM). This study set out to formulate a lowcost medium for the culture of S. platensis, by substituting nutrients of Zarrouk's medium using fertilizer- grade urea and soil extract with a different concentration of carbon source under natural weather condition. In order to select a low-cost culture medium of S. platensis, 10 culture media were prepared with different concentrations of nitrogen (urea and NaNO3) and NaHCO3. The highest maximum specific growth rate (μmax) and mass production were 0.50 day-1 and 1.05 g L-1 in modified medium (NaHCO3 7.50 g L-1, urea 2.00 g L-1 without NaNO3) among all the synthesized media. Protein (56.14%) and carbohydrate (16.21%) concentrations of the lyophilized standard samples were estimated with highest concentration of glutamic acid (14.93%). This study revealed that the use of a low concentration of urea and NaHCO3 with soil extract was an affordable medium for natural mass cultivation in the FSM.


Ra K.,Marine Environments and Conservation Research Division | Lee C.M.,Ocean Policy Institute | Noh J.-H.,Marine Ecosystem Research Division | Park H.-S.,Pacific Ocean Research Center | And 3 more authors.
Ocean and Polar Research | Year: 2013

Heavy metals in the mangrove sediments of Chuuk and Kosrae, Federated States of Micronesia were analyzed to examine the pollution levels of heavy metals using enrichment factor (EF) and pollution load index (PLI). The mean concentrations of Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb in surface mangrove sediments were 642, 125, 46.9, 149, 15.6, 0.14 and 8.55 μg, respectively. Kosrae mangrove sediments showed the highest concentrations of Cr and Ni while Chuuk contains more of other metals such as Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb. Compared to those from other mangrove regions of the world, Cr, Ni and As levels in mangrove sediments from Micronesia were at higher levels whereas Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb were at lower to median levels. In core sediment of Chuuk, metal concentrations in the upper part were higher than those in the lower part. Based on the EF and PLI values, As is evaluated as the heaviest contaminant in the surface sediment from Micronesia whilst other metals (Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb) are present at slightly lesser levels.


Kim T.,Pacific Ocean Research Center | Choi Y.-U.,Pacific Ocean Research Center | Choi J.-K.,Korea Ocean Satellite Center | Kwon M.-S.,Ocean Policy Institute | Park H.-S.,Pacific Ocean Research Center
Ocean and Polar Research | Year: 2013

The aim of this study is to suggest an optimal survey method for coastal habitat monitoring around Weno Island in Chuuk Atoll, Federated States of Micronesia (FSM). This study was carried out to compare and analyze differences between in situ survey (PHOTS) and high spatial satellite imagery (Worldview-2) with regard to the coastal habitat distribution patterns of Weno Island. The in situ field data showed the following coverage of habitat types: sand 42.4%, seagrass 26.1%, algae 14.9%, rubble 8.9%, hard coral 3.5%, soft coral 2.6%, dead coral 1.5%, others 0.1%. The satellite imagery showed the following coverage of habitat types: sand 26.5%, seagrass 23.3%, sand + seagrass 12.3%, coral 18.1%, rubble 19.0%, rock 0.8% (Accuracy 65.2%). According to the visual interpretation of the habitat map by in situ survey, seagrass, sand, coral and rubble distribution were misaligned compared with the satellite imagery. While, the satellite imagery appear to be a plausible results to identify habitat types, it could not classify habitat types under one pixel in images, which in turn overestimated coral and rubble coverage, underestimated algae and sand. The differences appear to arise primarily because of habitat classification scheme, sampling scale and remote sensing reflectance. The implication of these results is that satellite imagery analysis needs to incorporate in situ survey data to accurately identify habitat. We suggest that satellite imagery must correspond with in situ survey in habitat classification and sampling scale. Subsequently habitat sub-segmentation based on the in situ survey data should be applied to satellite imagery.


Kang T.,KIOST | Kang T.,Inha University | Min W.-G.,Dokdo Research Center | Rho H.S.,Dokdo Research Center | And 2 more authors.
Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom | Year: 2014

This study aimed to determine the potential impact of an oil spill on intertidal meiofauna at a clean, sandy beach in Korea. This objective was accomplished by examining changes in the structure of meiofaunal assemblages after a controlled oil spill of different concentrations on the beach. The concentration of total petroleum hydrocabon (TPH) in the experimental plots after oil application was expectedly higher for the first 4 d compared to before oil application. The TPH concentrations decreased at a faster rate in the first 4 d, and then progressively. The sharp decline in meiofaunal density in the experimental plots during the first 4 d after the spill might be attributed to the short-term toxic effects of the oil. This suggestion is supported by a significant negative interaction of the TPH on meiofaunal density during the study period. The period of low density of meiofauna also coincided with the maximum concentration of TPH in the sediment. The multivariate indices proved to be highly efficient, showing that samples contaminated with oil had high TPH concentrations, and were partially separated in terms of meiofaunal communities from samples before oil application or samples with low TPH concentrations. The structure of the meiofaunal communities in the experimental plots was similar before and 1 month after oil application. However, the density of meiofauna sharply decreased immediately after oil application in the experiment plots. Furthermore, the meiofaunal density recovered slowly as time passed. © Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 2013.


Lee H.-M.,Pacific Ocean Research Center | Lee H.-M.,Korean University of Science and Technology | Yoon K.-T.,Pacific Ocean Research Center
Ocean and Polar Research | Year: 2014

Macrobenthic biodiversity in the rocky intertidal areas of the Tae-an region, Republic of Korea, has decreased since the Hebei Spirit oil spill in December 2007. We aimed to investigate ecological roles of Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) because recruitment and growth of oysters are critical to the recovery of damaged rocky shore ecosystem. We surveyed two sites monthly: natural rocky substrate and farming substrate, from July 2012 to January 2013 to identify and compare the changes in macrobenthic fauna. The abundance of young oysters was higher at the natural site. On the other hand, the mean height of oyster on the farming substrate was more than twice as great. The abundance of oyster at the natural site increased until October and then continuously decreased until end of study period. However, the abundance of oyster at the farming site constantly decreased from the beginning of study period. These different growth patterns might be attributable to spatial competition between oyster and a barnacle species (Balanus albicostatus) and environmental factors. At the natural site, physical stress factors including dramatic temperature changes and desiccation a few of the major factors limiting growth during aerial exposure. In addition, motile macrobenthos could be detrimental to oysters because they interrupt filter-feeding activities and hence hamper the growth of oysters. We show the higher recruitment of oysters at the natural site and healthy growth in the farming substrate are due to complicated differences in physical and biological stress factors.


Choi Y.-U.,Pacific Ocean Research Center | Yoon K.-T.,Pacific Ocean Research Center | Lee D.-W.,Pacific Ocean Research Center | Kim T.,Pacific Ocean Research Center | And 2 more authors.
Ocean and Polar Research | Year: 2013

The fish species composition of seagrass bed in Chuuk Lagoon, Micronesia, was investigated every month from August 2009 to July 2011, using a seine net for fish caught. A total of 32 fish species belonging to 18 families under 6 orders were identified during the study period. Of these fish, Atherinomrus lacunosus, and Strongylura incise were the major dominant species representing 85.0% in total number of individuals. The number of species and individuals were high from August to December 2009, 2010. The biomass was highest in September 2010 and the diversity index was higher in September 2009, April, August 2010 and July 2011. The 14 dominant species could be divided into 2 groups of 3 individuals based on appearance patterns; (1) resident species and temporal species (9 species, e.g. Atherinomrus lacunosus), juvenile and adults living in seagrass beds and juveniles living only in seagrass beds; (2) temporal species (2 species, e.g. Hemiramphus lutkei), juveniles living only in seagrass beds; (3) temporal species (3 individuals, e.g. Caranx sexfasiatus). For some species, the appearance patterns were affected by water temperature. However, the relationships between sea currents, salinity, tide, and structure of fish assemblage remain unclear. Further studies that regularly monitor sea grass habitats are necessary to clearly understand the correlation between environmental factors and sea grass habitat use patterns in fish assemblages.

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