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Massilani D.,University Paris Diderot | Guimaraes S.,University Paris Diderot | Brugal J.-P.,Usr 3336 Ifra Institute Francais Of Recherche En Afrique | Brugal J.-P.,Aix - Marseille University | And 13 more authors.
BMC Biology | Year: 2016

Background: Climatic and environmental fluctuations as well as anthropogenic pressure have led to the extinction of much of Europe's megafauna. The European bison or wisent (Bison bonasus), one of the last wild European large mammals, narrowly escaped extinction at the onset of the 20th century owing to hunting and habitat fragmentation. Little is known, however, about its origin, evolutionary history and population dynamics during the Pleistocene. Results: Through ancient DNA analysis we show that the emblematic European bison has experienced several waves of population expansion, contraction, and extinction during the last 50,000 years in Europe, culminating in a major reduction of genetic diversity during the Holocene. Fifty-seven complete and partial ancient mitogenomes from throughout Europe, the Caucasus, and Siberia reveal that three populations of wisent (Bison bonasus) and steppe bison (B. priscus) alternately occupied Western Europe, correlating with climate-induced environmental changes. The Late Pleistocene European steppe bison originated from northern Eurasia, whereas the modern wisent population emerged from a refuge in the southern Caucasus after the last glacial maximum. A population overlap during a transition period is reflected in ca. 36,000-year-old paintings in the French Chauvet cave. Bayesian analyses of these complete ancient mitogenomes yielded new dates of the various branching events during the evolution of Bison and its radiation with Bos, which lead us to propose that the genetic affiliation between the wisent and cattle mitogenomes result from incomplete lineage sorting rather than post-speciation gene flow. Conclusion: The paleogenetic analysis of bison remains from the last 50,000 years reveals the influence of climate changes on the dynamics of the various bison populations in Europe, only one of which survived into the Holocene, where it experienced severe reductions in its genetic diversity. The time depth and geographical scope of this study enables us to propose temperate Western Europe as a suitable biotope for the wisent compatible with its reintroduction. © 2016 Massilani et al.


Lazareva E.M.,Moscow State University | Filatova O.A.,Moscow State University | Burdin A.M.,Alaska Sealife Center | Burdin A.M.,Pacific Institute of Geography | Hoyt E.,Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society
Zoologicheskii Zhurnal | Year: 2010

Odontocete echolocation has been actively studied in captivity, but there are few studies in the wild. Parameters of echolocation trains in free-ranging killer whales (Orcinus orca) are analyzed under different types of activity (foraging and traveling) and during foraging on different prey (salmon and Atka mackerel). The following parameters are compared: the length of the train, number of clicks in the train, interclick intervals, and repetition rate. Parameters of echolocation trains showed significant differences between the types of activity. Differences in the use of echolocation during foraging on different preys that suggests different strategies of hunting on different fish species were found.


Kulakov A.P.,Pacific Institute of Geography | Khudyakov G.I.,Pacific Institute of Geography | Miasnikov E.A.,Pacific Institute of Geography
Izvestiya Akademii Nauk, Seriya Geograficheskaya | Year: 2011

The morphostructures of high order (megamorphostructures) are control the main features of the geologic-geomorphological structure of the East-Asian region as well as the some modern regional geoecological processes. The most important from them - the earthquakes, which are result of the geodynamic activity of the megamorphostructures. The definite morphostructures, zones and regions of the high seismic activity had been identified which occupy the most part of the East-Asia region. The other regional geoecological processes: 1. The destruction of the marine margin of mainland and subsidence of it under sea-level.


Aminin D.L.,RAS Pacific Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry | Silchenko A.S.,RAS Pacific Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry | Avilov S.A.,RAS Pacific Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry | Stepanov V.G.,Pacific Institute of Geography | Kalinin V.I.,RAS Pacific Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry
Natural Product Communications | Year: 2010

Six monosulfated triterpene glycosides, frondoside A 1 (1), okhotoside B 1 (2), okhotoside A 1-1 (3), frondoside A (4), okhotoside A 2-1 (5) and cucumarioside A 2-5 (6), isolated from Cucumaria okhotensis Levin et Stepanov, stimulate spreading and lysosomal activity of mouse macrophages and ROS-formation in the macrophages. The highest macrophage spreading and stimulation of their lysosomal activity was induced by glycosides 1, 4 and 6. All glycosides similarly stimulate ROS formation in macrophages, but glycoside 2 caused minimal stimulation.

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