The Pacific Gas and Electric Company, commonly known as PG&E, is an investor-owned utility that provides natural gas and electricity to most of the northern two-thirds of California, from Bakersfield almost to the Oregon border. It is the leading subsidiary of the PG&E Corporation.PG&E was founded in 1905 and is currently headquartered in the Pacific Gas & Electric Building in San Francisco. Wikipedia.
Kwok A.G.,University of Oregon |
Rajkovich N.B.,Pacific Gas and Electric Company
Building and Environment | Year: 2010
According to the Buildings Energy Data Book published by the U.S. Department of Energy, in 2006 the building sector consumed 38.9% of the total primary energy used in the United States. Of this energy, 34.8% is used by buildings for space heating, ventilation, and air conditioning. This energy often involves the combustion of fossil fuels, contributing to carbon dioxide emissions and climate change. Even if greenhouse gas concentrations are stabilized in the atmosphere, extreme climate events and sea level rise will continue for several centuries due to inertia of the atmosphere. Therefore, adaptation will be a necessary compliment to carbon dioxide mitigation efforts. This paper argues that both mitigation of greenhouse gases and adaptation to climate change should be added to our building codes and standards. Since space heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning utilize a large amount of energy in buildings, we should begin by redefining our thermal comfort standards and add strategies that mitigate carbon dioxide emissions and adapt to predicted climate variability. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Alatik L.,University of California at Berkeley |
Abrahamson N.,Pacific Gas and Electric Company
Earthquake Spectra | Year: 2010
Seismic input to nonlinear dynamic analyses of structures is usually defined in terms of acceleration time series whose response spectra are compatible with a specified target response spectrum. Time domain spectral matching used to generate realistic design acceleration time series is discussed in this paper.A new and improved adjustment function to be used in modifying existing accelerograms while preserving the nonstationary character of the ground motion is presented herein. The application of the new adjustment wavelet ensures stability, efficiency and speed of the numerical solution and prevents drift in the resulting velocity and displacement time series. © 2010, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.
Gulerce Z.,Middle East Technical University |
Abrahamson N.A.,Pacific Gas and Electric Company
Earthquake Spectra | Year: 2011
This paper contains ground-motion prediction equations (GMPEs) for the vertical-to-horizontal spectral acceleration (V/H) ratio, and the methods for constructing vertical design spectra that are consistent with the probabilistic seismic hazard assessment results for the horizontal ground motion component. The GMPEs for V/H ratio consistent with the horizontal GMPE of Abrahamson and Silva (2008) are derived using the Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center's Next Generation of Ground-Motion Attenuation Models (PEER-NGA) database (Chiou et al. 2008). The proposed V/H ratio GMPE is dependent on the earthquake magnitude and distance, consistent with previous models, but it differs from previous studies in that it accounts for the differences in the nonlinear site-response effects on the horizontal and vertical components. This difference in nonlinear effects results in large V/H ratios at short spectral periods for soil sites located close to large earthquakes. A method to develop vertical design spectra dependent on the horizontal component uniform hazard spectrum that accounts for the correlation between the variability of the horizontal groundmotion model and the variability of the V/H ratio ground-motion model is proposed. © 2011, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.
Pacific Gas and Electric Company | Date: 2014-03-12
Some embodiments include a method of providing substantially uninterrupted gas service by coupling at least one gas cylinder to a portable tanking assembly. The tanking assembly can include a cart including a rear frame and a coupled carrier frame supported on an axle with wheels. In some embodiments, the carrier frame can include a caged regulation assembly housing at least a portion of a regulation apparatus with an upstream supply end coupled to a downstream delivery end. In some embodiments, the regulation apparatus includes a primary regulator coupled a one relief valve. The relief valve can be coupled to a downstream regulator, coupled to a water column gauge. In some embodiments, the regulation apparatus further includes a delivery valve. In some embodiments, the delivery valve comprises a distribution manifold assembly including a manifold and a plurality of distribution couplers coupled to the manifold.
Pacific Gas and Electric Company | Date: 2014-03-14
Some embodiments provide systems and methods of managing enterprise resources including providing a plurality of process modules for managing resources associated with a plurality of processes, at least one of the modules using at least one processor to access a database stored on a non-transitory computer-readable storage medium. Some embodiments include providing a project and asset management module for managing at least one step of a plurality of projects including long-term planning and defining at least one project work item in a project life cycle. Some embodiments also include a resource and scheduling module for maintaining a resource database stored on a non-transitory computer-readable storage medium and for scheduling project resources. Some embodiments include a planning and reporting module, an engineering design module, and an interface module that uses at least one of the processors to interface at least two of the plurality of modules.