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Victoria, Canada

Barclay H.J.,Pacific Forestry Center | Vreysen M.J.B.,International Atomic Energy Agency
Population Ecology | Year: 2011

The critique by Hargrove et al. (Popul Ecol, 2011) of our recently published paper on a tsetse population model (Barclay and Vreysen in Popul Ecol 53:89-110, 2011) has made some good points but has also misinterpreted the intent of some of our results as we presented them. Hargrove et al. rightly say that there is a mismatch between the size of the unit cells in the model (1 ha) and the iteration rate of the model (every 5 days), yielding too low a dispersal rate to simulate reality. However, they have misconstrued several of our results that we presented as examples to imply that those results were a necessary condition for control of tsetse, especially using traps and targets. © 2011 The Society of Population Ecology and Springer. Source

Barclay H.J.,Pacific Forestry Center | Vreysen M.J.B.,International Atomic Energy Agency
Population Ecology | Year: 2011

A spatial model of tsetse (Glossina palpalis ssp. and G. pallidipes) life cycle was created in FORTRAN, and four control measures [aerial spraying of non-residual insecticides, traps and targets, insecticide-treated livestock (ITL) and the sterile insect technique] were programmed into the model to assess how much of each of various combinations of these control tactics would be necessary to eradicate the population. The model included density-independent and -dependent mortality rates, temperature-dependent mortality, an age-dependent mortality, two mechanisms of dispersal and a component of aggregation. Sensitivity analyses assessed the importance of various life history features and indicated that female fertility and factors affecting survivorship had the greatest impact on the equilibrium of the female population. The female equilibrium was likewise reduced when dispersal and aggregation were acting together. Sensitivity analyses showed that basic female survivorship, age-dependent and temperature-dependent survivorship of adults, teneral-specific survivorship, daily female fertility, and mean temperature had the greatest effect on the four applied control measures. Time to eradication was reduced by initial knockdown of the population and due to the synergism of certain combinations of methods [e. g., traps-targets and sterile insect technique (SIT); ITL and SIT]. Competitive ability of the sterile males was an important parameter when sterile to wild male overflooding ratios were small. An aggregated wild population reduced the efficiency of the SIT, but increased it with increased dispersal. The model can be used interactively to facilitate decision making during the planning and implementation of operational area-wide integrated pest management programs against tsetse. © 2010 The Society of Population Ecology and Springer. Source

Osono T.,Kyoto University | Trofymow J.A.,Pacific Forestry Center
Ecological Research | Year: 2012

Species richness and species composition of microfungi associated with Oregon beaked moss (Kindbergia oregana) were studied at two forest chronosequences on southeast Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada. The purposes were to investigate the effects of clear-cutting and the transformation of old-growth forests into secondary forests on microfungi and the succession of microfungi in relation to long-term stand development. Green and brown parts of moss were collected from the forest floor of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) stands of four age classes: post-harvest regeneration (13-14 years), immature (50-51 years), and mature (85-101 years) stands, and a control old-growth (296-324 years) stand, and used for the isolation of microfungi. A total of 49 microfungal species were recorded. Study site, stand age, and moss parts significantly affected the species richness and species composition of microfungi. The species richness of microfungi was significantly greater on brown than on green moss parts and lower in post-harvest regenerations than in forest stands of the other age classes. The species composition of major microfungal species changed gradually along the seral stages. Possible environmental and biological factors that could account for the succession of microfungi were discussed. © 2011 The Ecological Society of Japan. Source

Moreira X.,Research Center Forestal Of Lourizan | Alfaro R.I.,Pacific Forestry Center | King J.N.,British Columbia Ministry of forests
Forestry | Year: 2012

Attack by the white pine weevil has notably reduced Sitka spruce productivity in British Columbia (BC) (Canada) and western US. By the 1970s, the BC Ministry of Forests established provenance trials of Sitka spruce with the objective of detecting usable genetic resistance to weevil. These early trials reported significant weevil resistance and allowed the production of the first (F1) controlled-cross progeny generation with demonstrable weevil resistance (R) or susceptibility (S). This study reports results of the screening for weevil resistance and the levels of constitutive defenses of this F1 Sitka spruce progeny. Progeny from resistant parents (R × R progeny) sustained significantly fewer weevil attacks than progeny from susceptible parents (S × S progeny) or progeny with one resistant and one susceptible parent (R × S progeny). Individual and family heritability estimates of the weevil resistance were 0.5 and 0.9, respectively. Constitutive defenses, measured by resin canal and sclereid cell density in the cortex, were significantly higher in R × R progeny than in R × S or S × S progeny. We observed a negative correlation between the percentage of trees attacked in each cross and the average density of the resin canals or sclereid cells for each cross. © 2012 Institute of Chartered Foresters. All rights reserved. Source

Metcalfe R.J.,University of Victoria | Nault J.,Pacific Forestry Center | Hawkins B.J.,University of Victoria
Canadian Journal of Forest Research | Year: 2011

There are few examinations of the relative availability and plant uptake of inorganic N and amino acid N in temperate forest regions. We determined the availability of amino acid N and inorganic N in soils under two shrub species (Vaccinium ovalifolium Sm. versus Rubus spectabilis Pursh) on three sites near Jordan River, British Columbia, over a growing season. We compared biomass production of the two shrubs and two conifers (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr. and Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. menziesii) when given inorganic N (20:80 or 80:20 NH 4 +-NO 3 -) or organic N (glycine and glutamic acid) and assessed short-term uptake (24 h) of 15N-labelled NH 4 +, NO 3 -, glycine, or glutamic acid by the four species. Water-extracted soil concentrations of NH 4 + were up to 1.5 times greater than NO3- averaged across sites. Concentrations of amino acid N and inorganic N were similar on soils under Rubus, but the amino acid N to inorganic N ratio was up to 2.4:1 in soils under Vaccinium. Soils dominated by Rubus had up to twice the NO 3 --N and two thirds the amino acid N concentrations of soils dominated by Vaccinium, averaged across sites and Rubus had relatively high shortterm 15NO 3 - uptake. The dry biomass of conifers was approximately four times greater when supplied mainly with NH 4 + compared with NO 3 -, but biomass of the two shrub species was similar in both inorganic N treatments. All plants had comparable rates of short-term 15N uptake from amino acids and inorganic N, suggesting that amino acids could contribute to the N nutrition of these temperate species; however, dry biomass of all four species grown with amino acids was less than one half that of plants grown with inorganic N. Source

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