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Hou S.,University of California at Los Angeles | Chen J.-F.,University of California at Los Angeles | Song M.,University of California at Los Angeles | Zhu Y.,University of California at Los Angeles | And 21 more authors.
ACS Nano | Year: 2017

Circulating fetal nucleated cells (CFNCs) in maternal blood offer an ideal source of fetal genomic DNA for noninvasive prenatal diagnostics (NIPD). We developed a class of nanoVelcro microchips to effectively enrich a subcategory of CFNCs, i.e., circulating trophoblasts (cTBs) from maternal blood, which can then be isolated with single-cell resolution by a laser capture microdissection (LCM) technique for downstream genetic testing. We first established a nanoimprinting fabrication process to prepare the LCM-compatible nanoVelcro substrates. Using an optimized cTB-capture condition and an immunocytochemistry protocol, we were able to identify and isolate single cTBs (Hoechst+/CK7+/HLA-G+/CD45-, 20 μm > sizes > 12 μm) on the imprinted nanoVelcro microchips. Three cTBs were polled to ensure reproducible whole genome amplification on the cTB-derived DNA, paving the way for cTB-based array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) and short tandem repeats analysis. Using maternal blood samples collected from expectant mothers carrying a single fetus, the cTB-derived aCGH data were able to detect fetal genders and chromosomal aberrations, which had been confirmed by standard clinical practice. Our results support the use of nanoVelcro microchips for cTB-based noninvasive prenatal genetic testing, which holds potential for further development toward future NIPD solution. © 2017 American Chemical Society.


He W.,Guangzhou University | Sun X.,Guangzhou University | Liu L.,pacgenomics | Li M.,pacgenomics | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Chromosomal anomalies in human embryos produced by in vitro fertilization are very common, which include numerical (aneuploidy) and structural (deletion, duplication or others) anomalies. Our previous study indicated that chromosomal deletion(s) is the most common structural anomaly accounting for approximately 8% of euploid blastocysts. It is still unknown if these deletions in human euploid blastocysts have clinical significance. In this study, we analyzed 15 previously diagnosed euploid blastocysts that had chromosomal deletion(s) using Agilent oligonucleotide DNA microarray platform and localized the gene location in each deletion. Then, we used OMIM gene map and phenotype database to investigate if these deletions are related with some important genes that cause genetic diseases, especially developmental delay or intellectual disability. As results, we found that the detectable chromosomal deletion size with Agilent microarray is above 2.38 Mb, while the deletions observed in human blastocysts are between 11.6 to 103 Mb. With OMIM gene map and phenotype database information, we found that deletions can result in loss of 81-464 genes. Out of these genes, 34-149 genes are related with known genetic problems. Furthermore, we found that 5 out of 15 samples lost genes in the deleted region, which were related to developmental delay and/or intellectual disability. In conclusion, our data indicates that all human euploid blastocysts with chromosomal deletion(s) are abnormal and transfer of these embryos may cause birth defects and/or developmental and intellectual disabilities. Therefore, the embryos with chromosomal deletion revealed by DNA microarray should not be transferred to the patients, or further gene map and/or phenotype seeking is necessary before making a final decision. Copyright: © 2014 Tondeleir et al.


Liang L.,Houston Fertility Institute | Liang L.,Guangzhou University | Wang C.T.,Houston Fertility Institute | Sun X.,Guangzhou University | And 9 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

A previous study comparing the performance of different platforms for DNA microarray found that the oligonucleotide (oligo) microarray platform containing 385K isothermal probes had the best performance when evaluating dosage sensitivity, precision, specificity, sensitivity and copy number variations border definition. Although oligo microarray platform has been used in some research fields and clinics, it has not been used for aneuploidy screening in human embryos. The present study was designed to use this new microarray platform for preimplantation genetic screening in the human. A total of 383 blastocysts from 72 infertility patients with either advanced maternal age or with previous miscarriage were analyzed after biopsy and microarray. Euploid blastocysts were transferred to patients and clinical pregnancy and implantation rates were measured. Chromosomes in some aneuploid blastocysts were further analyzed by fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) to evaluate accuracy of the results. We found that most (58.1%) of the blastocysts had chromosomal abnormalities that included single or multiple gains and/or losses of chromosome(s), partial chromosome deletions and/or duplications in both euploid and aneuploid embryos. Transfer of normal euploid blastocysts in 34 cycles resulted in 58.8% clinical pregnancy and 54.4% implantation rates. Examination of abnormal blastocysts by FISH showed that all embryos had matching results comparing microarray and FISH analysis. The present study indicates that oligo microarray conducted with a higher resolution and a greater number of probes is able to detect not only aneuploidy, but also minor chromosomal abnormalities, such as partial chromosome deletion and/or duplication in human embryos. Preimplantation genetic screening of the aneuploidy by DNA microarray is an advanced technology used to select embryos for transfer and improved embryo implantation can be obtained after transfer of the screened normal embryos. © 2013 Liang et al.


Zheng H.,Guangzhou University | Jin H.,pacgenomics | Liu L.,pacgenomics | Liu J.,Guangzhou University | Wang W.-H.,Vivere Health
Molecular Cytogenetics | Year: 2015

Background: Aneuploidy is a leading cause of repeat implantation failure and recurrent miscarriages. Preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) enables the assessment of the numeral and structural chromosomal errors of embryos before transfer in patients undergoing in vitro fertilization. Array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) has been demonstrated to be an accurate PGS method and in present thought to be the gold standard, but new technologies, such as next-generation sequencing (NGS), continue to emerge. Validation of the new comprehensive NGS-based 24-chromosome aneuploidy screening technology is still needed to determine the preclinical accuracy before it might be considered as an alternative method for human PGS. Results: In the present study, 43 human trophectoderm (TE) biopsy samples and 5 cytogenetically characterized cell lines (Coriell Cell Repositories) were tested. The same whole genome amplified product of each sample was blindly assessed with Veriseq NGS and Agilent aCGH to identify the aneuploidy status. The result showed that the NGS identified all abnormalities identified in aCGH including the numeral chromosomal abnormalities (again or loss) in the embryo samples and the structural (partial deletion and duplication) in the Coriell cell lines. Both technologies can identify a segmental imbalance as small as 1.8 Mb in size. Among the 41 TE samples with abnormal karyotypes in this study, eight (19.5 %) samples presented as multiple chromosome abnormalities. The abnormalities occurred to almost all chromosomes, except chromosome 6, 7, 17 and Y chromosome. Conclusions: Given its reliability and high level of consistency with an established aCGH methodology, NGS has demonstrated a robust high-throughput methodology ready for extensive clinical application in reproductive medicine, with potential advantages of reduced costs and enhanced precision. Then, a randomized controlled clinical trial confirming its clinical effectiveness is advisable to obtain a larger sequencing dataset and more evidence for the extensive use of NGS-based PGS. © 2015 Zheng et al.


Liu J.,Guangzhou Medical College | Wang W.,Houston Fertility Institute New Houston Health | Sun X.,Guangzhou Medical College | Liu L.,pacgenomics | And 8 more authors.
Biology of Reproduction | Year: 2012

Trophectoderm (TE) biopsy and DNA microarray have become the new technologies for preimplantation genetic diagnosis in humans. In this study, we comprehensively examined aneuploid formation in human blastocysts produced in vitro with microarray and investigated the clinical outcome after transfer of euploid embryos. Biopsied cells from either TE or inner cell mass (ICM) were processed for microarray to examine the errors in 23 pairs of chromosomes and the consistency between TE and ICM. It was found that 56.6% of blastocysts were aneuploid. Further analysis indicated that 62.3% of aneuploid blastocysts had single and 37.7% had multiple chromosomal abnormalities. Chromosome errors could occur in any chromosome, but errors in chromosome 21 accounted for the most (11.3%) among the 23 pairs of chromosomes. Transfer of array-screened blastocysts produced high pregnancy (70.2%) and implantation (63.5%) rates. Microarray of TE and ICM cells in the same blastocysts revealed that high proportions of aneuploid blastocysts (69.2%) were mosaic, including aneuploid TE and euploid ICM, inconsistent anomalies between ICM and TE, or euploid TE cells and aneuploid ICM in the same blastocyst. These results indicate that high proportions of human blastocysts produced in vitro from women of advanced maternal age are aneuploid and mosaic. Errors can occur in any of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in human blastocysts. Biopsy from TE in blastocysts does not exactly predict the chromosomal information in ICM if the embryos are aneuploid. Some mosaic blastocysts have euploid ICM, which may indicate important differentiate mechanism(s) of human preimplantation embryos. © 2012 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.


pacgenomics | Entity website

Xinmin Li, PhD, CGMBS, CLSp(MB)Advisory Board for PacGenomicsDr. Li is a Full Professor in Genomics, the director of the UCLA Clinical Microarray Core, and the director of JCCC Genomics Shared Resource (Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine) ...


pacgenomics | Entity website

28222 Agoura Road, # 200 Agoura Hills, CA 91301 Office Phone: 818-597-1938 Office Fax: 818-597-1939


PubMed | pacgenomics, University of California at Los Angeles and Reproductive Center
Type: | Journal: Fertility and sterility | Year: 2016

To assess whether preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) is possible by testing for free embryonic DNA in spent IVF media from embryos undergoing trophectoderm biopsy.Prospective cohort analysis.Academic fertility center.Seven patients undergoing IVF and 57 embryos undergoing trophectoderm biopsy for PGS.On day 3 of development, each embryo was placed in a separate media droplet. All biopsied embryos received a PGS result by array comparative genomic hybridization. Preimplantation genetic screening was performed on amplified DNA extracted from media and results were compared with PGS results for the corresponding biopsy.[1] Presence of DNA in spent IVF culture media. [2] Correlation between genetic screening result from spent media and corresponding biopsy.Fifty-five samples had detectable DNA ranging from 2-642ng/L after a 2-hour amplification. Six samples with the highest DNA levels underwent PGS, rendering one result with a derivative log ratio SD (DLRSD) of <0.85 (a quality control metric of oligonucleotide array comparative genomic hybridization). The fluid sample and trophectoderm results were identical demonstrating (45XY, -13). Three samples were reamplified 1hour later and tested showing improving DLRSD. One of the three samples with a DLRSD of 0.85 demonstrated (46XY), consistent with the biopsy. Overnight DNA amplification showed DNA in all samples.We demonstrate two novel findings: the presence of free embryonic DNA in spent media and a result that is consistent with trophectoderm biopsy. Improvements in DNA collection, amplification, and testing may allow for PGS without biopsy in the future.


PubMed | Guangzhou University, Vivere Health and pacgenomics
Type: | Journal: Molecular cytogenetics | Year: 2015

Aneuploidy is a leading cause of repeat implantation failure and recurrent miscarriages. Preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) enables the assessment of the numeral and structural chromosomal errors of embryos before transfer in patients undergoing in vitro fertilization. Array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) has been demonstrated to be an accurate PGS method and in present thought to be the gold standard, but new technologies, such as next-generation sequencing (NGS), continue to emerge. Validation of the new comprehensive NGS-based 24-chromosome aneuploidy screening technology is still needed to determine the preclinical accuracy before it might be considered as an alternative method for human PGS.In the present study, 43 human trophectoderm (TE) biopsy samples and 5 cytogenetically characterized cell lines (Coriell Cell Repositories) were tested. The same whole genome amplified product of each sample was blindly assessed with Veriseq NGS and Agilent aCGH to identify the aneuploidy status. The result showed that the NGS identified all abnormalities identified in aCGH including the numeral chromosomal abnormalities (again or loss) in the embryo samples and the structural (partial deletion and duplication) in the Coriell cell lines. Both technologies can identify a segmental imbalance as small as 1.8Mb in size. Among the 41 TE samples with abnormal karyotypes in this study, eight (19.5%) samples presented as multiple chromosome abnormalities. The abnormalities occurred to almost all chromosomes, except chromosome 6, 7, 17 and Y chromosome.Given its reliability and high level of consistency with an established aCGH methodology, NGS has demonstrated a robust high-throughput methodology ready for extensive clinical application in reproductive medicine, with potential advantages of reduced costs and enhanced precision. Then, a randomized controlled clinical trial confirming its clinical effectiveness is advisable to obtain a larger sequencing dataset and more evidence for the extensive use of NGS-based PGS.

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