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White Plains, NY, United States

De Aquino Ribas A.C.,Memphis Zoo | Brescovit A.D.,Pace Law School | Raizer J.,Federal University of Grande Dourados
Journal of Arachnology | Year: 2011

The presence of buds, flowers, and fruits increases structural complexity in plants, but can also attract potential prey for predators, thus determining faunistic composition. To understand how a spider assemblage living in the shrub Byrsonima intermedia (Malpighiaceae) varies with habitat structure in terms of reproductive elements and height of plant, we collected spider specimens and measured bud, flower, fruit, and leaf masses of 44 plants, as well as their height. Spider family composition was found to depend on habitat structure, following a pattern of family turnover occurring along gradients of reproductive plant elements and height, regardless of plant biomass. Theridiidae occurred in samples with the major proportions of buds and flowers, while Oxyopidae occurred only in samples with major proportions of fruits. Multiple linear regression revealed the strong relation between the composition in reproductive plant elements and the composition in families of spiders and a relation between shrub height and spider family composition. These results help us to understand the temporal dynamics between structural complexity of vegetation and spider assemblages, because during plant phenology the proportions of reproductive elements are also varying. © 2011 The American Arachnological Society.

Reichling S.B.,Memphis Zoo | Baker C.,Memphis Zoo | Swatzell C.,Pace Law School
Journal of Arachnology | Year: 2011

A large population of Sphodros rufipes (Latreille 1829) was discovered in a municipal park in Memphis, Tennessee. We examined potential stem diameter preference, frequency of web attachment to available tree species and the spatial distribution patterns of spiders and potential attachment structures. A wide range of structure diameters were utilized for web attachment. The association of pursewebs to tree taxa was independent of the frequency of tree taxa occurrence. The spacing of vegetation stems and trunks was approximately random, but spiders exhibited a nonrandom, aggregated distribution, which was more pronounced in subadults than adults. The factors influencing S. rufipes to occur in aggregations cannot be explained by the spatial proximity of potential attachment structures in the forest. © 2011 The American Arachnological Society.

Miller J.G.,Pace Law School
Journal of Environmental Law and Litigation | Year: 2012

The Supreme Court's decisions under the pollution control statutes administered by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) reach startlingly anti-environmental results, but they are explained more by the Court's overwhelming hostility toward the private enforcement of statutes, rather than an anti-environmental bias. While other Justices have raised the same concern, Justice Kennedy's invitation is particularly significant because he is a swing vote in environmental and other social justice cases. A closer look at the issue' is warranted by the overwhelming hostility of the Court toward citizen suits; the continued development of the unitary theory of the executive the Court's embrace of that theory in its latest separation of powers decision; new insights and research into the origins and nature of prosecutorial discretion; and changes in the composition of the Court making it potentially more sympathetic to Article II challenges.

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