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De Aquino Ribas A.C.,Memphis Zoo | Brescovit A.D.,Pace Law School | Raizer J.,Federal University of Grande Dourados
Journal of Arachnology | Year: 2011

The presence of buds, flowers, and fruits increases structural complexity in plants, but can also attract potential prey for predators, thus determining faunistic composition. To understand how a spider assemblage living in the shrub Byrsonima intermedia (Malpighiaceae) varies with habitat structure in terms of reproductive elements and height of plant, we collected spider specimens and measured bud, flower, fruit, and leaf masses of 44 plants, as well as their height. Spider family composition was found to depend on habitat structure, following a pattern of family turnover occurring along gradients of reproductive plant elements and height, regardless of plant biomass. Theridiidae occurred in samples with the major proportions of buds and flowers, while Oxyopidae occurred only in samples with major proportions of fruits. Multiple linear regression revealed the strong relation between the composition in reproductive plant elements and the composition in families of spiders and a relation between shrub height and spider family composition. These results help us to understand the temporal dynamics between structural complexity of vegetation and spider assemblages, because during plant phenology the proportions of reproductive elements are also varying. © 2011 The American Arachnological Society.


Reichling S.B.,Memphis Zoo | Baker C.,Memphis Zoo | Swatzell C.,Pace Law School
Journal of Arachnology | Year: 2011

A large population of Sphodros rufipes (Latreille 1829) was discovered in a municipal park in Memphis, Tennessee. We examined potential stem diameter preference, frequency of web attachment to available tree species and the spatial distribution patterns of spiders and potential attachment structures. A wide range of structure diameters were utilized for web attachment. The association of pursewebs to tree taxa was independent of the frequency of tree taxa occurrence. The spacing of vegetation stems and trunks was approximately random, but spiders exhibited a nonrandom, aggregated distribution, which was more pronounced in subadults than adults. The factors influencing S. rufipes to occur in aggregations cannot be explained by the spatial proximity of potential attachment structures in the forest. © 2011 The American Arachnological Society.


Miller J.G.,Pace Law School
Journal of Environmental Law and Litigation | Year: 2012

The Supreme Court's decisions under the pollution control statutes administered by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) reach startlingly anti-environmental results, but they are explained more by the Court's overwhelming hostility toward the private enforcement of statutes, rather than an anti-environmental bias. While other Justices have raised the same concern, Justice Kennedy's invitation is particularly significant because he is a swing vote in environmental and other social justice cases. A closer look at the issue' is warranted by the overwhelming hostility of the Court toward citizen suits; the continued development of the unitary theory of the executive the Court's embrace of that theory in its latest separation of powers decision; new insights and research into the origins and nature of prosecutorial discretion; and changes in the composition of the Court making it potentially more sympathetic to Article II challenges.


Ottinger R.L.,Pace Law School | Emeritus D.,Pace Law School
Strategic Planning for Energy and the Environment | Year: 2010

The imperatives for reducing the world's dependence on fossil and nuclear fuels have multiplied manifold in recent years with the advent of worldwide terrorism. These new dangers come in addition to the imperatives of addressing the dire consequences of global warming and devastating pollution that accompany the use of these fossil fuels. Reducing dependence on these unsafe and unreliable energy resources should be a top global priority. Implementation of proven energy efficiency technologies offers the world the fastest, safest, most economic, and most environmentally benign way to alleviate these threats. This article outlines available efficiency measures, their economic advantages, and means by which they may be and have been implemented. While examples of efficiency applications from both developed and developing countries are given, the article relies heavily on experience with energy efficiency in the United States, where data on efficiency is particularly abundant.


Carothers L.,Pace Law School
Environmental Forum | Year: 2014

Leslie Carothers, scholar-in-residence at Pace Law School, received the 2013 ABA Award for Distinguished Achievement in Environmental Law and Policy. A pioneer in the early years of environmental protection, she expands in this space on her remarks in accepting the honor, drawing insights for today's environmental professionals. The SEC and the securities laws were part of the nation's response to a depression and the collapse of the financial markets. They aimed to shield investors from fraud and market manipulation and to protect the national economy from the impacts of shaky capital structures. Animated by new ethics, new laws changed the legal relationships between the government, companies, investors, and the public. Friction can be reduced if EPA continues to work toward streamlined but more effective methods to oversee and support state environmental programs, with less emphasis on review of individual activities like permits and grants and more intensive reviews of the results of complete programs.


Burleson E.,Pace Law School
Cornell journal of law and public policy | Year: 2012

This Article argues that filling the energy governance gaps regarding unconventional natural gas can best be accomplished through collaborative governance that is genuinely adaptive and cooperative. Through cooperative federalism, combined with procedural rights for inclusive, innovative decision-making, state and non-state actors should design and implement the requisite safeguards before further natural gas development advances. Hydraulic fracturing provisions are strikingly fragmented and have sparked a fierce debate about chemical disclosure, radioactive wastewater disposal, and greenhouse gas emissions. United States natural gas production may stunt the direction and intensity of renewable energy by up to two decades and will not provide a bridge to a sound energy policy if it "erode[s] efforts to prepare a landing at the other end of the bridge." Unconventional natural gas extraction need not become a transition to a new addiction. This Article analyzes how cooperative federalism and inclusive decision-making can provide legitimacy and transparency when balancing property rights against police powers to regulate natural gas production.


PubMed | Pace Law School
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Cornell journal of law and public policy | Year: 2014

This Article argues that filling the energy governance gaps regarding unconventional natural gas can best be accomplished through collaborative governance that is genuinely adaptive and cooperative. Through cooperative federalism, combined with procedural rights for inclusive, innovative decision-making, state and non-state actors should design and implement the requisite safeguards before further natural gas development advances. Hydraulic fracturing provisions are strikingly fragmented and have sparked a fierce debate about chemical disclosure, radioactive wastewater disposal, and greenhouse gas emissions. United States natural gas production may stunt the direction and intensity of renewable energy by up to two decades and will not provide a bridge to a sound energy policy if it erode[s] efforts to prepare a landing at the other end of the bridge. Unconventional natural gas extraction need not become a transition to a new addiction. This Article analyzes how cooperative federalism and inclusive decision-making can provide legitimacy and transparency when balancing property rights against police powers to regulate natural gas production.

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