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Wapato, WA, United States

Pace International

Wapato, WA, United States
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News Article | May 8, 2017
Site: www.businesswire.com

WAPATO, Wash.--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Pace International held its 7th annual Pace Postharvest Academy last Wednesday, May 3rd, 2017 at the Suncadia Resort in Cle Elum, WA, gathering over 150 industry leaders from various countries. The half-day conference explored game changing ideas and innovative solutions and strategies for pome and stone fruits that can help customers address challenges found in packinghouses today. “Pace’s Postharvest Academy is about sharing innovative ideas, but also about bringing solutions to our customers that can be implemented as soon as they go back to their operations. There is nothing more rewarding for us as an organization than to help our customers be better. If they succeed, then we do too”, said Rodrigo Cifuentes, VP Marketing and Business Development, Pace International. The line-up of speakers and topics in this year’s academy included: Pace’s academy has established itself as one of the most important meetings in the postharvest industry and continues to grow its attendance and geographical expansion. “Our goal is to replicate this model in other regions, crops and markets as well. We need to be able to share these exciting and innovative ideas with customers in other areas. The growing population and reduction of food waste will require that we think outside the box if we are to feed 8.5 billion people by 2030,” said Jorge Gotuzzo, Marketing Director, Pace International. Pace International, LLC is a subsidiary of Valent BioSciences Corporation, a Sumitomo Chemical Company. Pace collaborates with growers, packers and agricultural organizations to develop innovative solutions to enhance, protect, and preserve fruit and vegetable quality. Pace is the leading provider of postharvest solutions and technologies, equipment and technical services to maximize efficiencies in packing operations and increase the value of crops being processed. For more information, visit the company’s website at www.paceint.com Headquartered in Libertyville, IL, Valent BioSciences is a subsidiary of Sumitomo Chemical Company and is the worldwide leader in the development, manufacturing and commercialization of biorational products with sales in 95 countries around the world. Valent BioSciences is an ISO 9001:2008 Certified Company. For additional information, visit the company’s website at www.valentbiosciences.com Headquartered in Tokyo, Japan, Sumitomo Chemical is one of Japan’s leading chemical companies, offering a diverse range of products globally in the fields of petrochemicals, energy and functional materials, IT-related chemicals and materials, health and crop science products, and pharmaceuticals. The company’s consolidated net sales for fiscal year 2014 were JPY 2.38 trillion. For additional information, visit the company’s website at www.sumitomo-chem.co.jp/english/.


Wiseman M.S.,Washington State University | Kim Y.K.,Pace International | Dugan F.M.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Rogers J.D.,Washington State University | Xiao C.L.,U.S. Department of Agriculture
Plant Disease | Year: 2016

During surveys for postharvest diseases of apple and pear, an unknown postharvest fruit rot was observed inWashington State. The disease appeared to originate from infection of the stem and calyx tissue of the fruit or wounds on the fruit. An unknown pycnidial fungus was consistently isolated from the decayed fruit. Isolates from apple and pear were characterized and identified by molecular phylogenetic analysis and morphology. Pathogenicity of representative isolates on apple and pear fruit was tested under laboratory or field conditions. A BLAST search in GenBank showed that isolates differed from Phacidium lacerum and its synonym, Ceuthospora pinastri, by only 0 to 4 bp in sequences within part of the combined large ribosomal subunit + internal transcribed spacer + small ribosomal subunit regions. The phylogenetic analysis confirmed the taxonomic placement of the unknown fungus in the genus Phacidium, with the highest match being C. pinastri (formerly anamorphic P. lacerum) and with closely related taxa from GenBank forming congeneric clades. The fungus grew at 0 to 30°C and formed unilocular to multilocular pycnidial conidiomata on artificial media after approximately 5 to 7 days at roomtemperature. On potato dextrose agar incubated for a 12-h photoperiod, semi-immersed globose to subglobose pycnidial conidiomata were 250 to 1,000 mm in diameter (mean = 350), with 1 to 3 nonpapillate to slightly papillate ostioles and a buff conidial matrix. Conidia produced on phialides were 8 to 13 by 1.5 to 2.5 mm, hyaline, aseptate, cylindrical, with an abruptly tapered, typically slightly protuberant base, 2 to 3 guttules, and sometimes with amucilaginous, flexuous, unbranched appendage which is attached to the apex of the conidium and disappears with age. Conidiogenous cells were flask shaped and 6 to 15 ×1.5 to 3 mm. Colony characteristics included felt-like aerial white mycelium, gray olivaceous at the center becoming greenish to colorless toward the margin, in concentric rings, with pycnidia forming in 5 to 7 days originating from the center of the plate. Morphological characteristics of the fungus had the greatest conformity with the description for C. pinastri. Based on molecular and morphological data, the fungus is identified as P. lacerum. ‘Fuji’ apple fruit and ‘d’Anjou’ pear fruit that were wounded, inoculated with representative isolates, and incubated at 0°C yielded the same symptoms as seen on decayed fruit collected from commercial fruit packinghouses. Stem-end rot, calyxend rot, and wound-associated rot developed on fruit inoculated in the orchard after 3 months of cold storage. The fungus was reisolated from the diseased fruit. This is the first report of a fruit rot in apple and pear caused by P. lacerum. We propose Phacidium rot as the name of this disease. © 2016 The American Phytopathological Society.


Kim Y.K.,Pace International | Saito S.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Xiao C.L.,U.S. Department of Agriculture
Plant Disease | Year: 2015

Penicillium digitatum is the causal agent of green mold, one of the most important postharvest diseases of citrus (Citrus spp.). Fludioxonil can be used alone or in combination with azoxystrobin for the control of green mold and other postharvest diseases on citrus. Baseline sensitivity to fludioxonil in P. digitatum populations from California citrus packinghouses has been previously established (Kanetis et al. 2008). To monitor resistance to fludioxonil in P. digitatum, 20 Penicillium spp. isolates were obtained from decayed oranges by isolation from decayed tissue and 22 isolates were recovered from potato dextrose agar plates amended with 0.5 mg/liter fludioxonil (Kanetis et al. 2006) and exposed to packinghouse air for 5 min each sampling time during March to July 2013 in two California citrus packinghouses. All isolates were single-spore cultured and identified as P. digitatum based on morphological characters (Pitt 1979). The sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, using the primers ITS1/ITS4, was conducted to confirm the species-level identification. A MegaBLAST search showed that the sequences of all isolates had 99% homology (E-value = 0.0) with that of P. digitatum deposited at GenBank (Accession No. AF033471.1). In a mycelial growth assay, 15 of the 42 P. digitatum isolates were able to grow at 0.5 μg/ml, a previously established discriminatory concentration (Kanetic et al. 2006). EC50 values (the effective concentration that inhibits fungal growth by 50% relative to the control) of fludioxonil for the resistant isolates were >100 mg/liter following a method described by Li and Xiao (2008). To assess whether fludioxonil at the label rate was able to control fludioxonil-resistant isolates, ‘Eureka’ lemons were wounded with a stainless steel rod (1 × 2 mm) and inoculated with 10 μl of conidial suspensions (6 × 104 conidia/ml) of a representative sensitive or a resistant isolate. After 4 h, inoculated fruit were dipped for 30 s in either a formulated product of fludioxonil, Graduate (50% active ingredient; Syngenta Crop Protection, Research Triangle Park, Raleigh, NC) at 1,198 mg/liter, or water as a control, and then stored at 20°C in air for 7 days. There were four 20-fruit replicates for each treatment and the experiment was performed twice. All inoculated water-dipped fruit were decayed, while fludioxonil completely controlled green mold on fruit inoculated with the fludioxonil-sensitive isolate. However, 100% fruit inoculated with the fludioxonil-resistant isolate and treated with fludioxonil were decayed. Fludioxonil-insensitive isolates have been reported to occur in natural populations of P. digitatum before its commercial use, but at very low frequency (1.4 to 2.5 × 10−9) (Kanetis et al. 2006). This is the first report of fludioxonil resistance in P. digitatum collected from commercial citrus packinghouses after the introduction of the fungicide on the market. These fludioxonil-resistant isolates were obtained from packinghouses where the fungicide had been used during citrus packing for 2 consecutive years, approximately for a 3-month period in each year, indicating that fludioxonil-resistant individuals emerged quickly in P. digitatum populations. Our results show that fludioxonil failed to control green mold incited by the fludioxonil-resistant isolate, suggesting that appropriate fungicide resistance management practices need to be implemented to ensure adequate control. © 2015 American Phytopathological Society. All rights reserved.


Caiazzo R.,Washington State University | Kim Y.K.,Pace International | Xiao C.L.,San Joaquin Valley Agricultural science Center
Plant Disease | Year: 2014

Penicillium expansum is the cause of blue mold in stored apple fruit. In 2010-11, 779 isolates of P. expansum were collected from decayed apple fruit from five packinghouses, tested for resistance to the postharvest fungicide pyrimethanil, and phenotyped based on the level of resistance. In 2010, 85 and 7% of the isolates were resistant to pyrimethanil in packinghouse A and B, respectively, where pyrimethanil had been used for four to five consecutive years. In 2011, pyrimethanil or fludioxonil was used in packinghouse A, and 96% of the isolates from the fruit treated with pyrimethanil were resistant but only 4% of the isolates from the fruit treated with fludioxonil were resistant to pyrimethanil, suggesting that fungicide rotation substantially reduced the frequency of pyrimethanil resistance. No pyrimethanil-resistant isolates were detected in 2010 in the three other packinghouses where the fungicide had been used recently on a small scale. However 1.8% of the isolates from one of the three packinghouses in 2011 were resistant to pyrimethanil. A significantly higher percentage of thiabendazoleresistant than thiabendazole-sensitive isolates were resistant to pyrimethanil. Of the pyrimethanil-resistant isolates, 37 to 52, 4 to 5, and 44 to 58% were phenotyped as having low, moderate, and high resistance to pyrimethanil, respectively. Fludioxonil effectively controlled pyrimethanil- resistant phenotypes on apple fruit but pyrimethanil failed to control phenotypes with moderate or high resistance to pyrimethanil and only partially controlled the low-resistance phenotype.


Kim Y.K.,Pace International | Kwak J.H.,Pace International | Aguilar C.G.,Washington State University | Xiao C.L.,U.S. Department of Agriculture
Plant Disease | Year: 2016

In July 2014, decayed ‘Fuji’ apples (Malus × domestica Borkh.) were observed and sampled from commercial orchards in Mattawa (Grant County) in Washington State. Symptoms appeared to originate mainly from infections at either the calyx-end of the fruit or from wounds on the fruit skin associated with insect injuries. Diseased fruit exhibited light- to dark-brown lesions without concentric rings. The lesions had defined margins. At advanced stages of decay, the entire fruit was completely rotten, spongy to firm, and light brown. Growers reported that this disease was also observed on other cultivars in the vicinity of Mattawa, including ‘Aurora Golden Gala’ (20 to 25% incidence) in 2013 and ‘Pink Lady’ (1 to 2% incidence) in 2014. To isolate the causal agent, small portions of fruit flesh from decayed fruit were excised from the lesion margin and placed on potato dextrose agar (PDA) acidified with 0.1% lactic acid. The plates were incubated at 20°C for 7 days, and pure cultures were obtained by transferring hyphal tips on PDA. The cultures were initially white with dense aerial mycelium and gradually became dark gray to olive green radially. The plate reverse was initially olive green, and then became dark gray to black. Conidia were aseptate, cylindrical, rounded at both ends, brown to dark brown at maturity, and 10 to 16 × 21 to 26 µm (n = 50). The fungus was identified as Diplodia seriata De Not. based on the description of its anamorphic stage (Phillips et al. 2007; Sutton 2014). The identities of five representative isolates were further confirmed by analysis of 2X consensus nucleotide sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions amplified using ITS1/ITS4 primers (White et al. 1990). A MegaBLAST search showed that the sequences of all five isolates had 99% homology (E-value = 0.0) to a D. seriata sequence in GenBank (Accession No. AY259094). A representative isolate was tested for pathogenicity on apple fruit. Organic ‘Fuji’ apples were surface-disinfected in 0.6% sodium hypochlorite solution for 5 min, rinsed twice with deionized water, and air-dried. Each fruit was wounded with the head of a sterile finishing nail (3 mm deep and 4 mm diameter) and inoculated by placing 4-mm-diameter mycelial plugs from the leading edge of a 4-day-old PDA culture on the wound. Control fruit were wounded and inoculated with PDA plugs devoid of the fungus. There were four 10-fruit replicates for each treatment, and the fruit were placed in plastic crispers and stored at 4°C for 4 weeks. The experiments were conducted twice. Black rot symptoms developed on all inoculated fruit, while no symptoms were observed on the control fruit. Koch’s postulates were fulfilled by reisolating the fungus from the decayed fruit. Black rot has been reported in other apple growing regions including the eastern United States, where it was first reported; however, the disease has not been reported in Washington State, where more than 60% of U.S. apples are produced. To our knowledge, this is the first report of black rot of apple caused by D. seriata in Washington State. © 2016 The American Phytopathological Society.


Xiao C.L.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Kim Y.K.,Pace International | Boal R.J.,Washington State University
Plant Disease | Year: 2014

Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens is the cause of Sphaeropsis rot, a recently reported postharvest fruit rot disease of apple. Infection of apple fruit by the fungus is believed to occur in the orchard, and symptoms develop during storage or in the market. S. pyriputrescens also is the cause of a twig dieback and canker disease of apple and crabapple trees. To determine sources of pathogen inoculum in the orchard, twigs with dieback and canker symptoms, dead fruit spurs, dead bark, and fruit mummies on the trees were collected and examined for the presence of pycnidia of S. pyriputrescens. To monitor inoculum availability during the growing season from early May to early November, dead fruit spurs or twigs from Fuji trees, and twigs with dieback from crabapple trees (as a source of pollen for apple production) in a Fuji orchard as well as dead fruit spurs and dead bark from Red Delicious trees in a Red Delicious orchard were sampled periodically and examined for the presence and viability of pycnidia of S. pyriputrescens. To determine seasonal survival and production of pycnidia of the fungus on twigs, apple twigs were inoculated in early December, sampled periodically for up to 12 months after inoculation, examined for the presence of pycnidia, and subjected to isolation of the fungus from diseased tissues to determine its survival. Pycnidia of S. pyriputrescens were observed on diseased twigs, dead fruit spurs and bark, and mummified fruit on both apple and crabapple trees, suggesting that these tissues were the sources of inoculum for fruit infection in the orchard. With the combined observations from two orchards during three growing seasons, viable pycnidia of the fungus were present throughout the year and observed in 50 to 100% of the Fuji trees, >90% of crabapple trees, and 0 to 50% of the Red Delicious trees. S. pyriputrescens was recovered from diseased tissues of inoculated twigs at all sampling times up to 12 months after inoculation. The results suggest that S. pyriputrescens can survive as mycelium in diseased twigs in northcentral Washington State and that availability of viable S. pyriputrescens pycnidia is unlikely a limiting factor for infection of apple fruit in the orchard leading to Sphaeropsis rot during storage. © 2014 The American Phytopathological Society.


Wiseman M.S.,Washington State University | Dugan F.M.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Kim Y.K.,Pace International | Xiao C.L.,U.S. Department of Agriculture
Plant Disease | Year: 2015

During surveys for postharvest diseases of apple conducted in Washington State, an unknown fruit rot was observed on stored apple fruit collected from commercial fruit packinghouses. This disease was present in 66 of the 179 grower lots sampled, accounting for an average 1 to 3% of the total decayed fruit sampled. The disease appeared to originate from infection of wounds on the fruit skin. Lesions were brown and decayed tissues were spongy. A Lambertella sp. was consistently isolated from the decayed fruit. Sequences of the fungus and those of Lambertella corni-maris in GenBank differed by 0 to 4 bp across the combined small ribosomal subunit + internal transcribed spacer + large ribosomal subunit regions with a maximum identity ranging from 99 to 100%. The fungus grew at 0 to 20°C and formed apothecia on artificial media after 8 to 24 weeks. On potato dextrose agar under a 12-h photoperiod, apothecial dimensions were variable, ranging from 1 to 6 mm in diameter with stipes of 1 to 4 by 0.5 mm. Asci were 76 to 125 by 3.5 to 5.5 μm, inoperculate, eight-spored, clavate, and narrowed at the base. Ascospores were aseptate, 7 to 10 by 2.5 to 4.5 μm, uniseriate to biseriate, and orange-brown at maturity in the ascus. Colony characteristics included little or no aerial mycelium, dark-yellow to grayblack mycelium, gray-black pseudosclerotia, and yellow pigmentation in the agar. Morphological characteristics of the fungus overlapped with the description of L. corni-maris. ‘Fuji’ apple fruit that were wounded, inoculated with representative isolates, and incubated at 0°C yielded the same symptoms as seen in packinghouses, and the fungus was reisolated from the diseased fruit. This is the first report of a fruit rot in stored apple caused by L. corni-maris in the United States. We propose Lambertella rot as the name of this disease. © 2015 The American Phytopathological Society.


Kim Y.K.,Pace International | Caiazzo R.,Washington State University | Sikdar P.,Washington State University | Xiao C.L.,U.S. Department of Agriculture
Plant Disease | Year: 2013

In March 2012, decayed 'Empire' apple fruit (Malus × domestica Borkh.) were sampled from apples grown in Albion (Orleans County) in New York State and stored in bins for 6 months under controlled atmosphere at a commercial packinghouse. At the packinghouse following storage prior to be packed, the fruit were completely rotten, spongy to firm, and light brown without pycnidia. All fruit rots originated from either stem-end or calyx-end infections but no wound infections were observed. The incidence of fruit with these symptoms in the total decay was relatively low (0.1%). To isolate the causal agent, small fragments of fruit flesh from 12 decayed fruit were cut and placed on potato dextrose agar (PDA) acidified with 0.1% lactic acid. The plates were incubated at 20°C for 4 days and sub-cultured on PDA to obtain a pure culture. The colonies initially appeared with dense hyaline mycelium and later turned light yellow to yellow, and black pycnidia formed after about 2 weeks of incubation under a 24-h fluorescent light at 20°C. Conidia were light brown to brown, clavate to subglobose to irregular, and 15 × 8 μm on average. The fungus was identified as Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens Xiao & J.D. Rogers based on the morphology of the fungus (3). The identity of a representative isolate was further confirmed by analysis of nucleotide sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions amplified using the primers ITS1/ITS4. A BLAST search in GenBank showed that the sequence had 99% homology to an S. pyriputrescens sequence (Accession No. GQ374241). One representative isolate was tested for pathogenicity on apple fruit. Organic 'Red Delicious' apple fruit were surface-disinfected in 0.6% sodium hypochlorite solution for 5 min, rinsed twice with deionized water, and air-dried. Each fruit was wounded with a sterilized finish-nail head (3 mm in depth and 4 mm in diameter) and inoculated by placing a 4-mm-diameter plug from the leading edge of a 4-dayold PDA culture on the wound. Control fruit were treated with sterile PDA plugs. The inoculation site was covered with two layers of moist cheesecloth to avoid dehydration. There were four 10-fruit replicates for each treatment, and fruit were placed in plastic crispers and stored at 4°C for 4 weeks. The experiments were conducted twice. Sphaeropsis rot developed on all inoculated fruit, while no decays appeared on the control fruit. Koch's postulates were fulfilled by reisolating the fungus from the decayed fruit. Sphaeropsis rot is a recently reported postharvest fruit rot disease of apple and pear (1,3). The disease was first observed on 'd'Anjou' pears, and later more serious economic losses were observed in apples in Washington State (1). The disease has also since been reported in British Columbia, Canada (2). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the occurrence of Sphaeropsis rot caused by S. pyriputrescens on apple in New York or in any region outside of the Pacific Northwest in North America. © The American Phytopathological Society.

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