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Kubryak O.V.,Anokhin Research Institute of Normal Physiology | Kovaleva A.V.,Moscow State Pedagogical University | Birukova E.A.,Vernadskii Federal University | Grokhovsky S.S.,Research Center | And 2 more authors.
Human Physiology | Year: 2016

Statistically significant differences in the stabilometric parameter, an index associated with physical estimation of work, were detected in 13 healthy young volunteers assuming a vertical posture with the eyes closed before and after performing a motor task (a 3-min session of support reaction control with biofeedback). An increase in posture stability after the procedure was accompanied by changes in the power distribution of EEG signals (in the 8–13 Hz range) recorded on the surface of the scalp. The observed effect consisting in an increased postural stability can be interpreted as a “rapid response” to performing a motor task; therefore, it offers the possibility of using a relatively simple approach for the monitoring of switching between functional states associated with various motor procedures and tests. © 2016, Pleiades Publishing, Inc.


PubMed | Anokhin Research Institute of Normal Physiology, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, National University of Science and Technology "MISIS" and RAS Shemyakin Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Toxicon : official journal of the International Society on Toxinology | Year: 2015

Kraits are venomous snakes of genus Bungarus from family Elapidae. Krait venoms are generally neurotoxic, but toxicity strongly depends on the particular species and regional origin of snakes. We analyzed the proteomes of Vietnamese Bungarus multicinctus and Bungarus fasciatus venoms both qualitatively and quantitatively. It should be noted that no proteomic data for B. multicinctus venom existed so far. We have found that in this venom, almost half (45%) of the proteins by weight was represented by -bungarotoxins, followed by three finger toxins (28%) and phospholipases A2 (16%), other proteins being present at the level of 1-3%. In B. fasciatus venom, phospholipase A2 was the main component (71%), followed by oxidase of l-amino acids (8%), acetylcholinesterase (5%) and metalloproteinases (4%). Unexpectedly, extremely low amount of three finger toxins (1%) was found in this venom. Interestingly, the presence of complement depleting factor was observed in both venoms. Although our data showed the presence of the same toxin families in Vietnamese krait venoms as those found earlier in the venoms of kraits from other geographic regions, their relative ratio is completely different. This concerns especially B. fasciatus venom with predominant content of phospholipases A2 and very low amount of three finger toxins.


Pertsov S.S.,Anokhin Research Institute of Normal Physiology | Kalinichenko L.S.,Anokhin Research Institute of Normal Physiology | Koplik E.V.,Anokhin Research Institute of Normal Physiology | Nagler L.G.,RAS Emanuel Institute of Biochemical Physics | And 2 more authors.
Biomeditsinskaya Khimiya | Year: 2015

The effect of the epiphyseal hormone melatonin on the activity of antioxidant enzymes, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), and Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD) was studied in peripheral blood erythrocytes of behaviorally passive and active Wistar rats. Acute emotional stress was modeled by immobilization of animals for 1h with simultaneous electrocutaneous stimulation. Basal activity of antioxidant glutathione enzymes in erythrocytes of behaviorally passive rats was higher than that in active animals. Administration of melatonin (2 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) was accompanied by a decrease in the activity of GPx and GR in erythrocytes from non-stressed passive animals. After experimental stress, passive rats demonstrated a significant increase in the activity of Cu/Zn-SOD and GPx in peripheral blood erythrocytes. The absence of stress-induced changes in functional activity of antioxidant defense enzymes in the blood of behaviorally active animals suggests a relatively constant oxidative status of tissues in these animals under stress conditions. Melatonin administration had little effect on stress-induced changes in functional activity of the erythrocyte antioxidant system in passive rats. Active specimens pretreated with melatonin before stress exposure were characterized by activation of study antioxidant enzymes. Quantitative parameters of the erythrocyte antioxidant defense enzymes did not differ in behaviorally active and passive rats subjected to experimental stress after melatonin injection. Thus, exogenous melatonin abolishes differences in the activity of study antioxidant enzymes in erythrocytes of animals with different behavioral parameters under basal conditions and after experimental stress. In passive rats melatonin mainly reduced the initial tension of oxidative processes. By contrast, administration of this hormone to active specimens is followed by an increase in functional activity of the antioxidant enzyme system under conditions of acute stress.


PubMed | Anokhin Research Institute of Normal Physiology and RAS Emanuel Institute of Biochemical Physics
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Biomeditsinskaia khimiia | Year: 2015

The effect of the epiphyseal hormone melatonin on the activity of antioxidant enzymes, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), and Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD) was studied in peripheral blood erythrocytes of behaviorally passive and active Wistar rats. Acute emotional stress was modeled by immobilization of animals for1 h with simultaneous electrocutaneous stimulation. Basal activity of antioxidant glutathione enzymes in erythrocytes of behaviorally passive rats was higher than that in active animals. Administration of melatonin (2 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) was accompanied by a decrease in the activity of GPx and GR in erythrocytes from non-stressed passive animals. After experimental stress, passive rats demonstrated a significant increase in the activity of Cu/Zn-SOD and GPx in peripheral blood erythrocytes. The absence of stress-induced changes in functional activity of antioxidant defense enzymes in the blood of behaviorally active animals suggests a relatively constant oxidative status of tissues in these animals under stress conditions. Melatonin administration had little effect on stress-induced changes in functional activity of the erythrocyte antioxidant system in passive rats. Active specimens pretreated with melatonin before stress exposure were characterized by activation of study antioxidant enzymes. Quantitative parameters of the erythrocyte antioxidant defense enzymes did not differ in behaviorally active and passive rats subjected to experimental stress after melatonin injection. Thus, exogenous melatonin abolishes differences in the activity of study antioxidant enzymes in erythrocytes of animals with different behavioral parameters under basal conditions and after experimental stress. In passive rats melatonin mainly reduced the initial tension of oxidative processes. By contrast, administration of this hormone to active specimens is followed by an increase in functional activity of the antioxidant enzyme system under conditions of acute stress.


Fudin N.A.,Anokhin Research Institute of Normal Physiology | Klassina S.Y.,Anokhin Research Institute of Normal Physiology | Pigareva S.N.,Anokhin Research Institute of Normal Physiology
Human Physiology | Year: 2015

This paper studies the relationship between EMG and ECG parameters during intensified stepdosed physical exercises with the use of a bicycle ergometer in subjects doing regular exercises and sports. The dynamics of changes in EMG and ECG parameters is observed in subjects during a step-dosed intensification of exercises. Specifically, if physical activity is not intense, muscular effort is mainly due to an increase in the heart rate; if it is highly intense, the electrophysiological processes of the whole myocardium are involved. The interrelation of the parameters of the muscular and cardiovascular systems is shown to increase with the intensity of physical activity. © 2015, Pleiades Publishing, Inc.


Murtazina E.P.,Anokhin Research Institute of Normal Physiology
Human Physiology | Year: 2015

Investigation of the processes of studying the instructions for subsequent activity by subjects is relevant in the context of systemic mechanisms of learning and memory processes and, moreover, concerns fundamental problems of psychophysiology, such as goal-directed attention, understanding the meaning of presented information, and formation of social motivation in human activities. The analysis of change in heart rate variability when reading instructions compared to the initial state of operative rest has shown that this stage of activity causes pronounced emotional stress, which is manifested in enhanced heart rate, lower variability, and changes in the spectral characteristics of heart rate. In addition, it was revealed that heart rate variability in the state of operative rest before testing and when reading instructions was positively correlated with the duration of studying the instruction and negatively correlated with the effectiveness and level of resistance of subjects to mismatching after making errors during the subsequent activities. Pronounced gender differences in relationships were shown between the changes in heart rate variability when reading the instructions and the indices of subsequent performance of a visual-motor test. © 2015, Pleiades Publishing, Inc.


Dzhebrailova T.D.,Moscow State University | Korobeinikova I.I.,Anokhin Research Institute of Normal Physiology | Karatygin N.A.,Anokhin Research Institute of Normal Physiology | Dudnik E.N.,Moscow State University
Human Physiology | Year: 2015

Changes in the power and coherence of α activity and heart rate variability (HRV) were studied in students with different performance levels in logical tasks. The students achieving high results in cognitive tests exhibited higher liability of α activity and HRV; the values and their ratios varied among the stages of intellectual activity. In these subjects, a decrease in the spectral power of the α band was more pronounced than in other groups. We also observed changes in the interhemispheric coherence and the structure of coherent interactions in the α band at different stages of task performance. In contrast, the number and structure of coherent interactions in individuals who exhibited lower results did not significantly vary at different stages of task performance. Compared to this group, the students with higher test results exhibited a more pronounced decreased in the total spectral power (TP) and an increase in the low frequency to high frequency (LF/HF) ratio, which returned to the initial level after the completion of the tests. In the students with better results in these cognitive tests, the dynamics of RRNN, TP, HF, and LF/HF during task performance were correlated with the dynamics of interhemispherical α band coherence. © 2015, Pleiades Publishing, Inc.


Mezentseva L.V.,Anokhin Research Institute of Normal Physiology | Pertsov S.S.,Anokhin Research Institute of Normal Physiology
Biophysics (Russian Federation) | Year: 2015

Computer simulations revealed the existence of three different modes of heart-rate dynamics: a linear mode, ”first-degree chaos,” and “second-degree chaos.” The persistence of these modes was investigated in the present study using the Hurst exponent. The Hurst exponent value was the highest for the seconddegree chaos mode (H = 0.671 ± 0.028) and somewhat lower for the first-degree chaos mode (H = 0.473 ± 0.015). Increased persistence of cardiac rhythm generation processes in the second-degree chaos mode is indicative of the non-stationary character and prognostic instability of these processes associated with increased risk of the development of cardiac pathology. © 2015, Pleiades Publishing, Inc.


Shevelkin A.V.,Anokhin Research Institute of Normal Physiology | Nikitin V.P.,Anokhin Research Institute of Normal Physiology | Sherstnev V.V.,Anokhin Research Institute of Normal Physiology
Neurochemical Journal | Year: 2016

The effects of serotonin and glutamate applications on H3 histone phosphorylation at serine 10 (Ser10, pHisH3) were immunohistochemically studied in the nuclei of L-RPa2-3 defensive behavior command neurons in the snail Helix lucorum. We found that simultaneous application of neurotransmitters induces biphasic changes in pHisH3-immunoreactivity in RPa2 neurons. The pHisH3 content increased at 30 min and decreased at 3 hours below the initial level, whereas in RPa3 neurons, a decrease in pHisH3 at 3 h occurred. Changes in pHisH3-immunoreactivity were not found in LPa2 and LPa3 neurons during the 7 hours of the experiment. Alterations of pHisH3-immunoreactivity in neural nuclei coincided with significant changes in colocalization with DNA. Our results demonstrate neuron-specific changes in genome activity in the neural nuclei of identified neurons in a cell model of a simple form of learning. © 2016, Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.

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