P and G Pet Care

Lewisburg, OH, United States

P and G Pet Care

Lewisburg, OH, United States
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Kaspar K.L.,Washington State University | Park J.S.,P and G Pet Care | Mathison B.D.,Washington State University | Brown C.R.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2012

Retention of bioactive compounds in white- (WFP), yellow- (YFP), red- (RFP) and purple (PFP)-fleshed potatoes after drum-drying (DD) and Refractance Window™ drying (RW) was compared with freeze-drying (FD). Processing, generally, did not influence total phenolics. Total carotenoid was high in YFP, but decreased with DD. Both DD and RW decreased lutein concentration in YFP. The RFP and PFP had the highest total anthocyanin, and their concentrations were decreased by DD. RW decreased total anthocyanin in PFP only. Total antioxidant activity in WFP was higher with DD but lower with RW. In contrast, DD and RW drying had no significant effect on total antioxidants in YFP, RFP and PFP. Therefore, drying generally decreased antioxidants, with FD and RW retaining the highest concentration of bioactive compounds. © 2011 Institute of Food Science and Technology.

Park J.S.,Washington State University | Mathison B.D.,Washington State University | Hayek M.G.,P and G Pet Care | Zhang J.,P and G Pet Care | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2013

Young (2.97 ± 0.01 yr; 8.16 ± 0.15 kg BW) and geriatric (10.71 ± 0.01 yr; 9.46 ± 0.18 kg BW) healthy female Beagle dogs (n = 14/age group) were fed 0 or 20 mg astaxanthin daily for 16 wk to examine modulation of mitochondrial function. Fasted blood was sampled on wk 0, 8, and 16. Mitochondria membrane permeability, ATP production, cytochrome c oxidase/reductase, and number were assessed in leukocytes whereas astaxanthin uptake, glutathione, superoxide dismutase, nitric oxide, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, 8-isoprostane, and protein carbonyl were measured in plasma. Aging increased (P < 0.05) complex III cytochrome c oxidoreductase but decreased (P < 0.05) 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine and protein carbonyl. Mitochondrial function improved in both young and geriatric dogs by increasing (P < 0.05) ATP production, mitochondria mass, and cytochrome c oxidoreductase activity, especially in geriatric dogs compared with young dogs. Astaxanthin feeding also increased (P < 0.05) the reduced glutathione to oxidized glutathione ratio in young dogs and decreased (P < 0.05) nitric oxide in both young and geriatric dogs. Dietary astaxanthin improved mitochondrial function in blood leukocytes, most likely by alleviating oxidative damage to cellular DNA and protein. © 2013 American Society of Animal Science. All rights reserved.

Park J.S.,Washington State University | Kim H.W.,Washington State University | Mathison B.D.,Washington State University | Hayek M.G.,P and G Pet Care | And 3 more authors.
Nutrition and Metabolism | Year: 2010

Background. Research on the uptake and transport of astaxanthin is lacking in most species. We studied the uptake of astaxanthin by plasma, lipoproteins and leukocytes in domestic dogs and cats. Methods. Mature female Beagle dogs (18 to 19 mo old; 11 to 14 kg BW) were dosed orally with 0, 0.1, 0.5, 2.5, 10 or 40 mg astaxanthin and blood taken at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 h post-administration (n = 8/treatment). Similarly, mature domestic short hair cats (12 mo old; 3 to 3.5 kg body weight) were fed a single dose of 0, 0.02, 0.08, 0.4, 2, 5, or 10 mg astaxanthin and blood taken (n = 8/treatment) at the same interval. Results. Both dogs and cats showed similar biokinetic profiles. Maximal astaxanthin concentration in plasma was approximately 0.14 mol/L in both species, and was observed at 6 h post-dosing. The plasma astaxanthin elimination half-life was 9 to 18 h. Astaxanthin was still detectable by 24 h in both species. In a subsequent study, dogs and cats were fed similar doses of astaxanthin daily for 15 to 16 d and astaxanthin uptake by plasma, lipoproteins, and leukocytes studied. In both species, plasma astaxanthin concentrations generally continued to increase through d 15 or 16 of supplementation. The astaxanthin was mainly associated with high density lipoprotein (HDL). In blood leukocytes, approximately half of the total astaxanthin was found in the mitochondria, with significant amounts also associated with the microsomes and nuclei. Conclusion. Dogs and cats absorb astaxanthin from the diet. In the blood, the astaxanthin is mainly associated with HDL, and is taken up by blood leukocytes, where it is distributed to all subcellular organelles. Certain aspects of the biokinetic uptake of astaxanthin in dogs and cats are similar to that in humans. © 2010 Park et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Lockhart J.,P and G Pet Care | Wilson K.,P and G Pet Care | Lanman C.,P and G Pet Care
Applied Animal Behaviour Science | Year: 2013

The impact of operantly training domestic cats to accept jugular blood collections in a dorsally recumbent (novel) position was assessed. Cats were assigned to one of three groups: Group 1 (N=14): no training, traditional jugular blood collection; Group 2 (N=17): trained in novel position but traditional blood collection method used; Group 3 (N=15): trained in novel position and new blood collection method used. The impact of handler was assessed by testing each cat twice, once with a familiar and once with an unfamiliar person, one week apart. For each test, cats received two venipunctures 20. min apart. Blood samples were analyzed for cortisol levels with collection one serving as the initial stressing event/baseline and collection two serving as test/change from baseline. All instances were filmed and coded for behavioral signs of stress. Cats displayed significantly more escape attempts with the unfamiliar than the familiar handler (P<0.01). Paired comparison with Bonferroni adjustments showed that Group 3 took significantly longer to position than Group 2 (P<0.01) and Group 1 (P<0.04), but overall took the same amount of time to complete blood collections. There was a significant difference between heart rates (beats per min; bpm) at release between groups (P<0.01). Group 3 had lower heart rates when released than Group 2 (P<0.01) and Group 1 (P<0.01). This suggests that the trained/recumbent cats showed the least physiological reaction to the blood collection. Trained cats, despite method or familiarity with handler, showed lower cortisol levels (μg/dL) when the procedure was repeated (P<0.02). Cortisol levels did not differ significantly at baseline on either day or between groups on day one. There was a significant difference in cortisol levels between groups on day 2 where Group 1 had significantly higher mean test cortisol concentrations when compared with Group 2 (P<0.01) or Group 3 (P<0.02). Operant training to blood collections appears to have a positive impact on the cat's experience whether a traditional or novel position is used. These results support the use of operant training to improve the overall blood collection experience for domestic cats. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

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