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Miyazaki-shi, Japan

Ozaki M.,Ozaki Eye Hospital | Nongpiur M.E.,Singapore Eye Research Institute | Aung T.,Singapore Eye Research Institute | Aung T.,National University of Singapore | And 3 more authors.
Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology

Purpose: A thicker lens vault (LV), measured by anterior segment optical coherence tomography (ASOCT), was recently identified as a novel risk factor for angle closure in Chinese Singaporeans. The purpose of our study was to investigate the association of LV with angle closure in Japanese subjects. Design: Case-control study Methods: One hundred and twenty-four subjects with primary angle-closure disease and 80 controls were recruited. All participants underwent ASOCT, and customized software was used to measure LV, defined as the perpendicular distance between the anterior pole of the lens and a horizontal line joining the two scleral spurs. A-scan biometry was used to measure lens thickness (LT) and to calculate lens position (LP) and relative lens position (RLP). Results: Eyes with angle closure had significantly shallower anterior chamber depth (ACD), shorter axial length, greater LV and LT (p<0.001 for all), and anteriorly positioned lenses (LP, p<0.001; RLP, p=0.019). After multivariate analysis adjusted for age, gender, ACD, LT, and RLP, increased LV was significantly associated with angle closure (odds ratio [OR] 24.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.3-250.5, comparing lowest with highest quartile), but no association was found for LT (OR 2.59; 95%CI, 0.48-13.85). In a sub-analysis evaluating the effect of LT on LV, LV was significantly greater in both the angle-closure group with thinner lens (LT≤4.91 mm) and angle-closure group with thicker lens (LT>4.91 mm) compared to normal controls (p<0.001 for both). Conclusions: In Japanese eyes, LV was independently associated with angle closure. These results corroborate the recent findings from Singapore on LV as a risk factor for angle closure. © Springer-Verlag 2012. Source

Osaki T.,University of Miyazaki | Ozaki M.,Ozaki Eye Hospital | Ozaki M.,University of Miyazaki | Takamura N.,Kyushu University of Health and Welfare | And 4 more authors.
Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition

Diclofenac instillation has been used widely in cataract surgery to prevent postoperative inflammation. Since diclofenac binds strongly to albumin in the circulation, it does not have a sufficient effect on patients in whom diclofenac binds strongly to albumin in the aqueous humor. A decrease in diclofenac binding and an increase in free diclofenac levels are necessary in these patients. The binding of diclofenac to albumin was investigated in the aqueous humor. In a diclofenac binding assay with albumin in the aqueous humor of individual patients, diclofenac was extracted from aliquots of the aqueous humor, and its total levels were measured using ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC). Free diclofenac levels were measured using ultrafiltration and UHPLC. The albumin-binding fraction of diclofenac was 0.8 or higher in the aqueous humor of some patients. Ibuprofen significantly inhibited diclofenac binding to site II of albumin in mimic aqueous humor, but not in pooled aqueous humor. This difference may have been due to the weak binding of diclofenac to site II in the pooled aqueous humor. Flurbiprofen was used instead of diclofenac. Flurbiprofen has been shown to bind more strongly than diclofenac to the same site of albumin. Thus, the inhibitory effect of ibuprofen on the binding of flurbiprofen to albumin was investigated in pooled aqueous humor. The results indicated that ibuprofen significantly inhibited the flurbiprofen binding. An effective diclofenac administration method may be established for clinical application by the instillation of an appropriate inhibitor of binding to the albumin site II. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source

Nakanishi H.,Kyoto University | Hayashi H.,Kyoto University | Yamada R.,Kyoto University | Yamashiro K.,Kyoto University | And 12 more authors.
Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science

PURPOSE. Polymorphisms in the promoter regions of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) genes can cause variations in the expression of the MMP genes in the sclera that can lead to a greater susceptibility to axial elongation of the eye. The purpose of this study was to determine whether functional singlenucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the MMP1, -2, and -3 promoter regions are associated with high myopia in the Japanese. METHODS. Seven hundred twenty-five unrelated Japanese patients with high myopia (axial length of ≥26.0 mm in both eyes, or refractive error ≥-6.0 D in phakic cases) and ≥40 years of age were studied. Five hundred forty-six healthy, unrelated Japanese who were ≥40 years of age served as population-based control subjects. All the subjects were genotyped for the four functional SNPs MMP1 -1607 1G/2G, MMP2 C-1306T, MMP2 C-735T, and MMP3 -1612 5A/6A with an SNP assay. The distribution of the genotypes in the cases and control subjects was compared by the X2 test for trend. RESULTS. No significant difference was detected in the distribution of the four SNPs MMP1 -1607 1G/2G (P = 0.92), MMP2 C1306T (P = 0.83), MMP2 C735T (P = 0.10), and MMP3 1612 5A/6A (P = 0.62), between the high myopia cases and the general-population controls. CONCLUSIONS. The four functional SNPs in the MMP1, -2, and -3 promoter regions do not play critical roles in the development of high myopia in the Japanese population. © Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology. Source

Lee H.J.,Eulji University | Ozaki M.,Ozaki Eye Hospital | Ozaki M.,University of Miyazaki | Ozaki M.,Kyushu University of Health and Welfare | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Glaucoma

Purpose: Superior segmental optic hypoplasia (SSOH) is a congenital disorder that is expected not to progress. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and clinical characteristics of coexistent open-angle glaucoma (OAG) in patients with SSOH. Patients and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 61 patients diagnosed with SSOH. The estimated prevalence and clinical characteristics of concomitant OAG among patients with SSOH were investigated. Results: Of the 61 patients with SSOH, 12 patients presented with concomitant OAG (mean age, 44.8±19.2 y). Mean follow-up period was 84.9±50.9 months. Five patients (8.2%) were diagnosed with both high-tension glaucoma (HTG) and SSOH; 4 had HTG and SSOH in both the eyes; and the other had HTG only in the eye with SSOH. Seven patients (11.5%) were diagnosed with both normal-tension glaucoma (NTG) and SSOH. Two patients had NTG and SSOH in both eyes and 5 patients had unilateral NTG. The estimated prevalence of OAG in patients with SSOH was 19.7% (95% confidence interval, 9.7%-29.7%). Conclusions: Primary OAG, including HTG and NTG, could develop in eyes with SSOH, regarded as having a nonprogressive visual field defect. The estimated prevalence of OAG, including both NTG and HTG, might be relatively higher in the SSOH patients. Thus, continuous follow-up examinations of patients with SSOH are required. Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Hayashi H.,Kyoto University | Yamashiro K.,Kyoto University | Nakanishi H.,Kyoto University | Nakata I.,Kyoto University | And 9 more authors.
Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science

Purpose. To investigate whether there are associations of genetic variations in chromosome 15q14 and 15q25, recently shown to confer risk of refractive error and myopia in Caucasians, with high myopia in Japanese. Methods. A total of 1125 unrelated Japanese patients with high myopia and two independent control groups were evaluated (366 cataract patients without high myopia and 929 healthy Japanese patients). The four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs634990 and rs524952 at 15q14 and rs8027411 and rs17175798 at 15q25 were genotyped. Results. A significant association with high myopia was observed in 15q14 (P = 0.0035 for rs634990 and P = 0.0017 for rs524952 when evaluated with cataract controls and P = 1.91 × 10-6 for rs634990 and P = 8.78 × 10-7 for rs524952 with healthy Japanese controls). When evaluated with cataract controls, the odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) were 1.30 (1.10-1.53) for rs634990 C allele and 1.32 (1.11-1.56) for rs524952 A allele. The population attributable risks were 0.29 and 0.30, respectively. The SNPs in 15q25 did not show a significant association with high myopia when evaluated with cataract control (P > 0.42), while it showed a weak association when evaluated with healthy Japanese controls (P = 0.031 for rs8027411 and P = 0.047 for rs17175798) with odds ratios of 1.17 (1.03-1.33) for rs8027411 T allele and 1.15 (1.02-1.31) for rs17175798 C allele. Conclusions. These findings suggest that a region in 15q14 is susceptibility loci for high myopia. This locus harbor susceptibility genes for not only common myopia but also for high myopia. The 15q25 locus might also have association to myopia. © 2011 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc. Source

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