Oy Hydrocell Ltd

Järvenpää, Finland

Oy Hydrocell Ltd

Järvenpää, Finland
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Wilson B.P.,University of Swansea | Wilson B.P.,Aalto University | Lavery N.P.,University of Swansea | Lavery N.P.,European Space Agency | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Power Sources | Year: 2013

This paper presents a cradle-to-grave comparative Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of new gas atomised (GA) sponge nickel catalysts and evaluates their performance against the both cast and crush (CC) sponge nickel and platinum standards currently used in commercial alkaline fuel cells (AFC). The LCA takes into account the energy used and emissions throughout the entire life cycle of sponge nickel catalysts - ranging from the upstream production of materials (mainly aluminium and nickel), to the manufacturing, to the operation and finally to the recycling and disposal. Through this assessment it was found that the energy and emissions during the operational phase associated with a given catalyst considerably outweigh the primary production, manufacturing and recycling. Primary production of the nickel (and to a lesser extent dopant materials) also has a significant environmental impact but this is offset by operational energy savings over the electrode's estimated lifetime and end of life recyclability. From the results it can be concluded that higher activity spongy nickel catalysts produced by gas atomisation could have a significantly lower environmental impact than either CC nickel or platinum. Doped GA sponge nickel in particular showed comparable performance to that of the standard platinum electrode used in AFCs. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Lampinen M.J.,Aalto University | Kiros Y.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology | Spets J.-P.,Aalto University | Anttila T.,Oy Hydrocell Ltd
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy | Year: 2010

This paper deals with the kind of the bioorganic fuel cells that are equipped with or without ion exchange membranes. The bioorganic materials of interest are alcohols (methanol, ethanol) and glucose, which are obtained from renewable energy sources such as biomass. The operation temperatures of the direct fuel cells cover from room temperature up to 150 °C. The direct bioorganic fuel cells belong to the subject area of 'Advanced fuel cells' of the Working group 4 in the EU COST Action 543 among the collaborating Universities and Institutes. Bioorganic fuel cells are suitable for application in small portable power sources, such as backups, battery chargers and in electronic devices. A number of current and earlier works are summarised and advances are highlighted in this area with special emphasis on glucose as a fuel. © 2010 Professor T. Nejat Veziroglu. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Spets J.-P.,Aalto University | Kuosa M.A.,Aalto University | Kiros Y.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology | Anttila T.,Oy Hydrocell Ltd. | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Power Sources | Year: 2010

In this study a direct-mode fuel cell in which the fuel and electrolyte are mixed with each other is tested. An alkaline electrolyte is used. The direct-mode fuel cell is exposed to an externally generated electromagnetic field between electrodes to cause both the splitting of the fuel molecule into smaller units (i.e. electrochemical reforming) and an increase in the activity of catalyst materials on the fuel before electrochemical oxidation. The target is to create a fuel cell with a capacity range of a few mW cm-2 with glucose as a fuel. In the selected fuel cell type with glucose as the fuel, a maximum current density of 13 mA cm-2 was obtained. On the basis of the tests it seems to be possible to use the glucose-fuelled cell in small-scale applications, e.g. in small electronic devices. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Spets J.-P.,Aalto University | Lampinen M.J.,Aalto University | Kiros Y.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology | Anttila T.,Oy Hydrocell Ltd | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Electrochemical Science | Year: 2010

In this study a test of the direct-mode bioorganic fuel cell (DMBFC) in which the fuel and the alkaline electrolyte are mixed with each other at two temperatures of 20 and 35 °C are carried out. The direct-mode bioorganic fuel cell is exposed to an externally generated electromagnetic field with simultaneous discharging in order to split the fuel molecule before the electrochemical oxidation at the two operation temperatures. The current-voltage characteristics are measured and analyzed. The liquid phase of the fuel-electrolyte concentration of the glucose was analysed both before and after the electrochemical tests at the operation temperature 20 °C. The aim is to continue with the development of the direct-mode glucose fuel cell by increasing the power density range by several mWcm-2. This type of the fuel cell with glucose as a fuel has increased to the specific capacity levels of 120.8 and 132.7 Ah / kg glucose at the temperatures of 20°C and 35°C, respectively. © 2010 by ESG.


Spets J.-P.,Aalto University | Kiros Y.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology | Kuosa M.A.,Aalto University | Rantanen J.,Oy Hydrocell Ltd. | And 2 more authors.
Electrochimica Acta | Year: 2010

In this study a direct-mode fuel cell in which the fuel and electrolyte are mixed with each other is tested. An alkaline electrolyte is used. The aim was to develop a fuel cell which operates directly by mixing the fuel with the electrolyte. The target is to create a fuel cell with a capacity of a few mW cm-2 with starch as a fuel source. Starch, glucose, and sorbitol were tested as fuels for the fuel cell. With the selected fuel cell type and with glucose as the fuel, a maximum current density of 8 mA cm-2 with a voltage of 0.5 V was obtained. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd.


Spets J.-P.,Aalto University | Lampinen M.J.,Aalto University | Kiros Y.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology | Rantanen J.,Oy Hydrocell Ltd | Anttila T.,Oy Hydrocell Ltd
International Journal of Electrochemical Science | Year: 2013

A direct glucose anion exchange membrane fuel cell (AEMFC) with a near-neutral-state electrolyte was studied at varying temperatures of 20, 30 and 37 ° C at two different concentrations of glucose of 0.1 and 0.3 M and with three concentrations of electrolyte of 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 M [PO4]tot. The prime objective was to show how specific energy (W kg-1 glucose) of the direct glucose AEMFC is related to the operation temperature and concentrations of the species. Current and voltage values were measured together with the pHs and conductivities of the electrolytes. No component analysis of the final products after the fuel cell operation were done as the oxidation products of glucose is believed to be mainly gluconic acid and unreacted glucose as shown in the low Coulombic efficiency based on the exchange of 24 e-. Temperature, electrolyte and glucose concentrations have shown to have pronounced effect for the achievement of the highest energy capacity of 5.15 Wh kg-1 glucose. © 2013 by ESG.


Spets J.-P.,Aalto University | Kuosa M.,Aalto University | Granstrom T.,Aalto University | Kiros Y.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology | And 3 more authors.
Materials Science Forum | Year: 2010

The use of glucose, which is produced from the acid hydrolysis of starch and cellulose, is studied as a fuel in a low-temperature direct-mode fuel cell (LTDMFC) with an alkaline electrolyte. Glucose is regarded as being as good a fuel as bioethanol, because both the fuels give 2 electrons per molecule in the fuel cell without carbonisation problems. However, glucose can be produced with fewer processing stages from starch and cellulose than can bioethanol. In the LTDMFC the fuel and the electrolyte are mixed with each other and the fuel cell is equipped only with metal catalysts. Cellulose as a fuel is of great importance because the fuel for the energy production is not taken from food production. A description of an acid hydrolysis method for starch and cellulose is presented. Values for glucose concentrations in each hydrolysate are analysed by means of a chromatographic method. Each glucose hydrolysate was made alkaline by adding of potassium hydroxide before feed in the fuel cell. Polarisation curves were measured, and they were found to produce lower current density values when compared to earlier tests with pure glucose. The Coulombic efficiency of pure glucose electrochemical oxidation in LTDMFC, which was calculated from a ratio of detected current capacity (As) to the maximum current capacity with the release of two electrons per molecule, was also found to be very low. Concerning the hydrolysates, the glucose concentrations were found to have values that were too low when compared to the earlier tests with pure glucose in a concentration of 1 M. The further development demands for the system under consideration are indicated. The concentration of glucose in the hydrolysate is essential to achieve high enough current density values in the LTDMFC. © (2010) Trans Tech Publications.


Spets J.-P.,Aalto University | Lampinen M.J.,Aalto University | Kiros Y.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology | Rantanen J.,Oy Hydrocell Ltd | Anttila T.,Oy Hydrocell Ltd
International Journal of Electrochemical Science | Year: 2012

This paper deals with the direct glucose fuel cell with an electrolyte at near-neutral-state pH value at room temperature by incorporating an anion exchange membrane (AEM) that was directly attached to a cathode. The wetted surface of the cathode was exposed to the AEM without implementing hot-pressing. The current-voltage curves were measured and the specific energy values for glucose were calculated for every test. Different concentrations of glucose were used and the results show that the lower the concentration of glucose, the higher is the specific energy, apparently showing higher utilization of the fuel with high Coulombic efficiency. © 2012 by ESG.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: JTI-CP-FCH | Phase: SP1-JTI-FCH-4.2 | Award Amount: 1.68M | Year: 2010

In the project two novel solutions for fuelling micro fuel cells are studied and developed to a demonstration level. The primary application area is fuel cell based power sources of portable electronic appliances such as cell phones, mp3-players and laptop computers, but also similar niche products. A generally recognized fact is that todays battery technology is not sufficient for many of those applications despite expected progress in the field due to the increasing number of features implemented. Fuel cell technology provides in principle a solution to the problem by enabling the use of chemical energy storages. The low temperature PEM technology is inherently feasible choice for consumer products because of the close-to-human nature of the applications provided that logistics of hydrogen can be solved. In the project we consider a solution, which combines hydrogen PEM with fuelling technology, where hydrogen is stored in a chemical form in a primary fuel and released in-situ on-demand bases. This provides benefits as to DMFC technology. The fuel cell using hydrogen can be made in a more compact size because of higher volumetric power density. The primary fuel can be stored in a disposable or recycled cartridge, which is changeable and logistically easily available. Two different technologies to produce hydrogen will be considered. One is based on NaBH as the fuel and the other on catalyzed electrolysis of methanol. The project has two main objectives: - Firstly, to show that the both technologies consider are feasible and fulfil the RCS requirements of mobile/portable electronic appliances in consumer markets. - Secondly, to find the best ways to build up logistics for fuelling using disposable or recycled cartridges. The power range targeted in the practical development work for demonstration is 5 20 W. Feasibility of the cartridge technologies and applications will be, however, explored in a wider range from 0.5 W up to 100 W level.

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