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Mosele J.I.,University of Lleida | Gosalbes M.-J.,University of Valencia | Gosalbes M.-J.,CIBER ISCIII | Macia A.,University of Lleida | And 11 more authors.
Molecular Nutrition and Food Research | Year: 2015

Scope: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect, regarding the metabolic and microbial profile of feces, of diet supplementation of healthy adults with pomegranate juice (PJ). Methods and results: Twelve healthy adults were recruited to the study, which consisted of the intake of 200 mL/day of PJ during 4 weeks. Feces were collected before and after the supplementation with PJ. Metabolites (phenolic catabolites, short-chain fatty acids, and fecal steroids) and microbial profile were analyzed at baseline and at 4 weeks. Fecal phenolic metabolites, 3-phenylpropionic acid, catechol, hydroxytyrosol, and urolithin A, showed a significant increase in their concentration after supplementation with PJ. Among fecal steroids, parallel to the significant increase of cholesterol concentration, a significant decrease of coprostanol was observed. Although no significant changes in the microbiota profile were observed, different relationships between initial microbiota and the metabolites produced were found. Catechol showed positive and negative correlation with Oscillospora and Paraprevotella genera, respectively, and 3-phenylpropionic acid was positively correlated with Odoribacter genus. Conclusion: Inclusion of PJ in the diet did not significantly alter the gut microbiota composition in healthy adults, but the individual bacterial composition could contribute to the generation of potential health-promoting phenolic metabolites. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source

Catalan U.,Oxidation and Cardiovascular Diseases Group NFOC Salut | Catalan U.,Rovira i Virgili University | Lopez de las Hazas M..-C.,University of Lleida | Rubio L.,Oxidation and Cardiovascular Diseases Group NFOC Salut | And 10 more authors.
Molecular Nutrition and Food Research | Year: 2015

Scope: Hydroxytyrosol (HT) is the major phenolic compound in virgin olive oil (VOO) in free and conjugated forms that may exert health benefits against atherosclerosis. The native form of HT is undetectable in plasma due to an extensive first pass phase II metabolism. Therefore, it is necessary to find strategies to obtain HT metabolites and to demonstrate their protective role against the endothelial dysfunction. Methods and results: Biosynthesis of the main plasmatic HT metabolites was performed through Caco-2 cells. The bioactivity of HT and the mixture of metabolites was tested at physiological concentrations (1, 2, 5, and 10 μM) in human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC) co-incubated with TNF-α (10 ng/mL) for 18 and 24 h. After the incubations, cells and media were analyzed to test possible deconjugation of metabolites or conjugation of HT. Both HT and metabolites significantly reduced the secretion of E-selectin, P-selectin, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1, but only HT metabolites further reduced MCP-1 at 24 h. HT underwent a conjugation process after incubation leading to its main metabolites in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion: Physiological HT metabolites, synthetized for the first time by using an intestinal cell model, might be responsible in part for the protection against endothelial dysfunction. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source

Lopez de las Hazas M.-C.,University of Lleida | Pinol C.,University of Lleida | Macia A.,University of Lleida | Romero M.-P.,University of Lleida | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Functional Foods | Year: 2016

This study investigated and compared the absorption, metabolism, and subsequently, the tissue distribution and excretion of hydroxytyrosol (HT) administered either in its free form or through its naturally occurring esterified precursors, namely oleuropein (OLE) and its aglycone forms known as secoiridoids (SEC). Here, rats were fed a diet supplemented with the equivalent of 5 mg phenol/kg/day for 21 days and the HT metabolites in the gastrointestinal digesta (stomach, small intestine and caecum), plasma, urine and metabolic tissues (liver and kidney) were analysed. Compared to HT and SEC, OLE showed greater stability during digestion, and, consequently, the bioavailability based on the urine excretion of HT metabolites was higher. OLE, as a glycoside molecule, reached the colon unaltered generating more diverse microbial metabolites. In terms of bioavailability, findings suggest that OLE might be the most suitable precursor of HT for incorporation into foods or nutraceutical formulations. © 2016. Source

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