Time filter

Source Type

Oxford, United Kingdom

Harvey D.J.,Oxford Glycobiology Institute
Journal of Chromatography B: Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences | Year: 2011

Carbohydrates display a large diversity of structures and their analysis presents many obstacles as the result of properties such as isomeric diversity, existence of branched structures and the lack of chromophores or fluorophores. Consequently, many analytical approaches depend on the application of chemical modifications such as hydrolysis or derivative formation. This review covers various aspects of derivatization that are used for such approaches as improving thermal stability and volatility for gas-phase analyses, introduction of fluorophores for optical detectors, introduction of charge for mass spectral analyses and attachment of bioaffinity tags for bioactivity studies. Reducing carbohydrates contain, in addition to multiple hydroxyl groups, several other sites for derivatization such as the single anomeric site that has been used in numerous methods for attaching various property-enhancing tags. Other sites are restricted to specific carbohydrates but include carboxy groups in sialic acids and amino groups in glycosylamines. All of these groups have been the targets of derivatization and this review attempts to summarise the main methods used for these various functional groups. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source

Warfield K.L.,Unither Virology LLC | Plummer E.,La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology | Alonzi D.S.,Oxford Glycobiology Institute | Wolfe G.W.,Gary Wolfe Toxicology | And 7 more authors.
Viruses | Year: 2015

Iminosugars are capable of targeting the life cycles of multiple viruses by blocking host endoplasmic reticulum a-glucosidase enzymes that are required for competent replication of a variety of enveloped, glycosylated viruses. Iminosugars as a class are approved for use in humans with diseases such as diabetes and Gaucher's disease, providing evidence for safety of this class of compounds. The in vitro antiviral activity of iminosugars has been described in several publications with a subset of these demonstrating in vivo activity against flaviviruses, herpesviruses, retroviruses and filoviruses. Although there is compelling non-clinical in vivo evidence of antiviral efficacy, the efficacy of iminosugars as antivirals has yet to be demonstrated in humans. In the current study, we report a novel iminosugar, UV-12, which has efficacy against dengue and influenza in mouse models. UV-12 exhibits drug-like properties including oral bioavailability and good safety profile in mice and guinea pigs. UV-12 is an example of an iminosugar with activity against multiple virus families that should be investigated in further safety and efficacy studies and demonstrates potential value of this drug class as antiviral therapeutics. © 2015 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Source

Dixon E.V.,Oxford Glycobiology Institute | Claridge J.K.,University of Oxford | Harvey D.J.,Oxford Glycobiology Institute | Harvey D.J.,University of Warwick | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Biological Chemistry | Year: 2014

Endoglycosidase S (EndoS) is a glycoside-hydrolase secreted by the bacterium Streptococcus pyogenes. EndoS preferentially hydrolyzes the N-linked glycans from the Fc region of IgG during infection. This hydrolysis impedes Fc functionality and contributes to the immune evasion strategy of S. pyogenes. Here, we investigate the mechanism of human serum IgG deactivation by EndoS. We expressed fragments of IgG1 and demonstrated that EndoS was catalytically active against all of them including the isolated CH2 domain of the Fc domain. Similarly, we sought to investigate which domains within EndoS could contribute to activity. Bioinformatics analysis of the domain organization of EndoS confirmed the previous predictions of a chitinase domain and leucine-rich repeat but also revealed a putative carbohydrate binding module (CBM) followed by a C-terminal region. Using expressed fragments of EndoS, circular dichroism of the isolated CBM, and a CBM-C-terminal region fusion revealed folded domains dominated by ß sheet and α helical structure, respectively. Nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of the CBM with monosaccharides was suggestive of carbohydrate binding functionality. Functional analysis of truncations of EndoS revealed that, whereas the C-terminal of EndoS is dispensable for activity, its deletion impedes the hydrolysis of IgG glycans. ©2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc. Source

Discover hidden collaborations