Griffiths I.M.,University of Oxford |
Howell P.D.,Oxford Centre for Industrial and Applied Mathematics |
Shipley R.J.,University College London
Physics of Fluids | Year: 2013
Predicting the distribution of solutes or particles in flows within porous-walled tubes is essential to inform the design of devices that rely on cross-flow filtration, such as those used in water purification, irrigation devices, field-flow fractionation, and hollow-fibre bioreactors for tissue-engineering applications. Motivated by these applications, a radially averaged model for fluid and solute transport in a tube with thin porous walls is derived by developing the classical ideas of Taylor dispersion. The model includes solute diffusion and advection via both radial and axial flow components, and the advection, diffusion, and uptake coefficients in the averaged equation are explicitly derived. The effect of wall permeability, slip, and pressure differentials upon the dispersive solute behaviour are investigated. The model is used to explore the control of solute transport across the membrane walls via the membrane permeability, and a parametric expression for the permeability required to generate a given solute distribution is derived. The theory is applied to the specific example of a hollow-fibre membrane bioreactor, where a uniform delivery of nutrient across the membrane walls to the extra-capillary space is required to promote spatially uniform cell growth. © 2013 American Institute of Physics.
Van Gorder R.A.,Oxford Centre for Industrial and Applied Mathematics
Physics of Fluids | Year: 2015
While the Hasimoto planar vortex filament is one of the few exact solutions to the local induction approximation (LIA) approximating the self-induced motion of a vortex filament, it is natural to wonder whether such a vortex filament solution would exist for the non-local Biot-Savart dynamics exactly governing the filament motion, and if so, whether the non-local effects would drastically modify the solution properties. Both helical vortex filaments and vortex rings are known to exist under both the LIA and non-local Biot-Savart dynamics; however, the planar filament is a bit more complicated. In the present paper, we demonstrate that a planar vortex filament solution does exist for the non-local Biot-Savart formulation, provided that a specific non-linear integral equation (governing the spatial structure of such a filament) has a non-trivial solution. By using the Poincaré-Lindstedt method, we are able to obtain an accurate analytical approximation to the solution of this integral equation under physically reasonable assumptions. To obtain these solutions, we approximate local effects near the singularity of the integral equation using the LIA and non-local effects using the Biot-Savart formulation. Mathematically, the results constitute an analytical solution to an interesting nonlinear singular integrodifferential equation in space and time variables. Physically, these results show that planar vortex filaments exist and maintain their forms under the non-local Biot-Savart formulation, as one would hope. Due to the regularization approach utilized, we are able to compare the structure of the planar filaments obtained under both LIA and Biot-Savart formulations in a rather straightforward manner, in order to determine the role of the non-locality on the structure of the planar filament. © 2015 AIP Publishing LLC.
Mucha P.J.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill |
Richardson T.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill |
Richardson T.,North Carolina State University |
Macon K.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill |
And 3 more authors.
Science | Year: 2010
Network science is an interdisciplinary endeavor, with methods and applications drawn from across the natural, social, and information sciences. A prominent problem in network science is the algorithmic detection of tightly connected groups of nodes known as communities. We developed a generalized framework of network quality functions that allowed us to study the community structure of arbitrary multislice networks, which are combinations of individual networks coupled through links that connect each node in one network slice to itself in other slices. This framework allows studies of community structure in a general setting encompassing networks that evolve over time, have multiple types of links (multiplexity), and have multiple scales.
Christensen H.M.,University of Oxford |
Moroz I.M.,Oxford Centre for Industrial and Applied Mathematics |
Palmer T.N.,University of Oxford
Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society | Year: 2015
Forecast verification is important across scientific disciplines, as it provides a framework for evaluating the performance of a forecasting system. In the atmospheric sciences, probabilistic skill scores are often used for verification, as they provide a way of ranking the performance of different probabilistic forecasts unambiguously. In order to be useful, a skill score must be proper: it must encourage honesty in the forecaster and reward forecasts that are reliable and have good resolution. A new score, the error-spread score (ES), is proposed, which is particularly suitable for evaluation of ensemble forecasts. It is formulated with respect to the moments of the forecast. The ES is confirmed to be a proper score and is therefore sensitive to both resolution and reliability. The ES is tested on forecasts made using the Lorenz '96 system and found to be useful for summarizing the skill of the forecasts. The European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) ensemble prediction system (EPS) is evaluated using the ES. Its performance is compared with a perfect statistical probabilistic forecast: the ECMWF high-resolution deterministic forecast dressed with the observed error distribution. This generates a forecast that is perfectly reliable if considered over all time, but does not vary from day to day with the predictability of the atmospheric flow. The ES distinguishes between the dynamically reliable EPS forecasts and the statically reliable dressed deterministic forecasts. Other skill scores are tested and found to be comparatively insensitive to this desirable forecast quality. The ES is used to evaluate seasonal range ensemble forecasts made with the ECMWF System 4. The ensemble forecasts are found to be skilful when compared with climatological or persistence forecasts, though this skill is dependent on the region and time of year. © 2015 Royal Meteorological Society.
Moore P.J.,Oxford Centre for Industrial and Applied Mathematics
Proceedings. Biological sciences / The Royal Society | Year: 2014
We analyse time series from 100 patients with bipolar disorder for correlates of depression symptoms. As the sampling interval is non-uniform, we quantify the extent of missing and irregular data using new measures of compliance and continuity. We find that uniformity of response is negatively correlated with the standard deviation of sleep ratings (ρ = -0.26, p = 0.01). To investigate the correlation structure of the time series themselves, we apply the Edelson-Krolik method for correlation estimation. We examine the correlation between depression symptoms for a subset of patients and find that self-reported measures of sleep and appetite/weight show a lower average correlation than other symptoms. Using surrogate time series as a reference dataset, we find no evidence that depression is correlated between patients, though we note a possible loss of information from sparse sampling.