De Domenico M.,Rovira i Virgili University |
Sole-Ribalta A.,Rovira i Virgili University |
Cozzo E.,University of Zaragoza |
Kivela M.,Oxford Centre for Industrial and Applied Mathematics |
And 5 more authors.
Physical Review X | Year: 2014
A network representation is useful for describing the structure of a large variety of complex systems. However, most real and engineered systems have multiple subsystems and layers of connectivity, and the data produced by such systems are very rich. Achieving a deep understanding of such systems necessitates generalizing "traditional"network theory, and the newfound deluge of data now makes it possible to test increasingly general frameworks for the study of networks. In particular, although adjacency matrices are useful to describe traditional single-layer networks, such a representation is insufficient for the analysis and description of multiplex and time-dependent networks. One must therefore develop a more general mathematical framework to cope with the challenges posed by multilayer complex systems. In this paper, we introduce a tensorial framework to study multilayer networks, and we discuss the generalization of several important network descriptors and dynamical processes-including degree centrality, clustering coefficients, eigenvector centrality, modularity, von Neumann entropy, and diffusion-for this framework. We examine the impact of different choices in constructing these generalizations, and we illustrate how to obtain known results for the special cases of single-layer and multiplex networks. Our tensorial approach will be helpful for tackling pressing problems in multilayer complex systems, such as inferring who is influencing whom (and by which media) in multichannel social networks and developing routing techniques for multimodal transportation systems.
Tsanas A.,Oxford Centre for Industrial and Applied Mathematics |
Xifara A.,University of Cardiff
Energy and Buildings | Year: 2012
We develop a statistical machine learning framework to study the effect of eight input variables (relative compactness, surface area, wall area, roof area, overall height, orientation, glazing area, glazing area distribution) on two output variables, namely heating load (HL) and cooling load (CL), of residential buildings. We systematically investigate the association strength of each input variable with each of the output variables using a variety of classical and non-parametric statistical analysis tools, in order to identify the most strongly related input variables. Then, we compare a classical linear regression approach against a powerful state of the art nonlinear non-parametric method, random forests, to estimate HL and CL. Extensive simulations on 768 diverse residential buildings show that we can predict HL and CL with low mean absolute error deviations from the ground truth which is established using Ecotect (0.51 and 1.42, respectively). The results of this study support the feasibility of using machine learning tools to estimate building parameters as a convenient and accurate approach, as long as the requested query bears resemblance to the data actually used to train the mathematical model in the first place. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hewett D.P.,Oxford Centre for Industrial and Applied Mathematics |
Hewett D.P.,University of Reading
Journal of Sound and Vibration | Year: 2012
We propose a new model for the propagation of acoustic energy from a time-harmonic point source through a network of interconnecting streets in the high frequency regime, in which the wavelength is small compared to typical macro-lengthscales such as street widths/lengths and building heights. Our model, which is based on geometrical acoustics (ray theory), represents the acoustic power flow from the source along any pathway through the network as the integral of a power density over the launch angle of a ray emanating from the source, and takes into account the key phenomena involved in the propagation, namely energy loss by wall absorption, energy redistribution at junctions, and, in 3D, energy loss to the atmosphere. The model predicts strongly anisotropic decay away from the source, with the power flow decaying exponentially in the number of junctions from the source, except along the axial directions of the network, where the decay is algebraic. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Griffiths I.M.,University of Oxford |
Howell P.D.,Oxford Centre for Industrial and Applied Mathematics |
Shipley R.J.,University College London
Physics of Fluids | Year: 2013
Predicting the distribution of solutes or particles in flows within porous-walled tubes is essential to inform the design of devices that rely on cross-flow filtration, such as those used in water purification, irrigation devices, field-flow fractionation, and hollow-fibre bioreactors for tissue-engineering applications. Motivated by these applications, a radially averaged model for fluid and solute transport in a tube with thin porous walls is derived by developing the classical ideas of Taylor dispersion. The model includes solute diffusion and advection via both radial and axial flow components, and the advection, diffusion, and uptake coefficients in the averaged equation are explicitly derived. The effect of wall permeability, slip, and pressure differentials upon the dispersive solute behaviour are investigated. The model is used to explore the control of solute transport across the membrane walls via the membrane permeability, and a parametric expression for the permeability required to generate a given solute distribution is derived. The theory is applied to the specific example of a hollow-fibre membrane bioreactor, where a uniform delivery of nutrient across the membrane walls to the extra-capillary space is required to promote spatially uniform cell growth. © 2013 American Institute of Physics.
Mucha P.J.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill |
Richardson T.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill |
Richardson T.,North Carolina State University |
Macon K.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill |
And 3 more authors.
Science | Year: 2010
Network science is an interdisciplinary endeavor, with methods and applications drawn from across the natural, social, and information sciences. A prominent problem in network science is the algorithmic detection of tightly connected groups of nodes known as communities. We developed a generalized framework of network quality functions that allowed us to study the community structure of arbitrary multislice networks, which are combinations of individual networks coupled through links that connect each node in one network slice to itself in other slices. This framework allows studies of community structure in a general setting encompassing networks that evolve over time, have multiple types of links (multiplexity), and have multiple scales.
Van Gorder R.A.,Oxford Centre for Industrial and Applied Mathematics
Physics of Fluids | Year: 2015
While the Hasimoto planar vortex filament is one of the few exact solutions to the local induction approximation (LIA) approximating the self-induced motion of a vortex filament, it is natural to wonder whether such a vortex filament solution would exist for the non-local Biot-Savart dynamics exactly governing the filament motion, and if so, whether the non-local effects would drastically modify the solution properties. Both helical vortex filaments and vortex rings are known to exist under both the LIA and non-local Biot-Savart dynamics; however, the planar filament is a bit more complicated. In the present paper, we demonstrate that a planar vortex filament solution does exist for the non-local Biot-Savart formulation, provided that a specific non-linear integral equation (governing the spatial structure of such a filament) has a non-trivial solution. By using the Poincaré-Lindstedt method, we are able to obtain an accurate analytical approximation to the solution of this integral equation under physically reasonable assumptions. To obtain these solutions, we approximate local effects near the singularity of the integral equation using the LIA and non-local effects using the Biot-Savart formulation. Mathematically, the results constitute an analytical solution to an interesting nonlinear singular integrodifferential equation in space and time variables. Physically, these results show that planar vortex filaments exist and maintain their forms under the non-local Biot-Savart formulation, as one would hope. Due to the regularization approach utilized, we are able to compare the structure of the planar filaments obtained under both LIA and Biot-Savart formulations in a rather straightforward manner, in order to determine the role of the non-locality on the structure of the planar filament. © 2015 AIP Publishing LLC.
Moore P.J.,Oxford Centre for Industrial and Applied Mathematics
Proceedings. Biological sciences / The Royal Society | Year: 2014
We analyse time series from 100 patients with bipolar disorder for correlates of depression symptoms. As the sampling interval is non-uniform, we quantify the extent of missing and irregular data using new measures of compliance and continuity. We find that uniformity of response is negatively correlated with the standard deviation of sleep ratings (ρ = -0.26, p = 0.01). To investigate the correlation structure of the time series themselves, we apply the Edelson-Krolik method for correlation estimation. We examine the correlation between depression symptoms for a subset of patients and find that self-reported measures of sleep and appetite/weight show a lower average correlation than other symptoms. Using surrogate time series as a reference dataset, we find no evidence that depression is correlated between patients, though we note a possible loss of information from sparse sampling.
Shipley R.J.,Oxford Centre for Industrial and Applied Mathematics |
Waters S.L.,Oxford Centre for Industrial and Applied Mathematics
Mathematical Medicine and Biology | Year: 2012
A model for fluid and mass transport in a single module of a tissue engineering hollow fibre bioreactor (HFB) is developed. Cells are seeded in alginate throughout the extra-capillary space (ECS), and fluid is pumped through a central lumen to feed the cells and remove waste products. Fluid transport is described using Navier-Stokes or Darcy equations as appropriate; this is overlaid with models of mass transport in the form of advection-diffusion-reaction equations that describe the distribution and uptake/production of nutrients/waste products. The small aspect ratio of a module is exploited and the option of opening an ECS port is explored. By proceeding analytically, operating equations are determined that enable a tissue engineer to prescribe the geometry and operation of the HFB by ensuring the nutrient and waste product concentrations are consistent with a functional cell population. Finally, results for chondrocyte and cardiomyocyte cell populations are presented, typifying two extremes of oxygen uptake rates. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Mathematics and its Applications. All rights reserved.
Trinh P.H.,Oxford Centre for Industrial and Applied Mathematics
Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences | Year: 2016
The standard analytical approach for studying steady gravity free-surface waves generated by a moving body often relies upon a linearization of the physical geometry, where the body is considered asymptotically small in one or several of its dimensions. In this paper, a methodology that avoids any such geometrical simplification is presented for the case of steady-state flows at low speeds. The approach is made possible through a reduction of the water-wave equations to a complex-valued integral equation that can be studied using the method of steepest descents. The main result is a theory that establishes a correspondence between different bluff-bodied free-surface flow configurations, with the topology of the Riemann surface formed by the steepest descent paths. Then, when a geometrical feature of the body is modified, a corresponding change to the Riemann surface is observed, and the resultant effects to the water waves can be derived. This visual procedure is demonstrated for the case of two-dimensional free-surface flow past a surface-piercing ship and over an angled step in a channel. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society.
Trinh P.H.,Oxford Centre for Industrial and Applied Mathematics |
Chapman S.J.,Oxford Centre for Industrial and Applied Mathematics
Nonlinearity | Year: 2015
Problems in exponential asymptotics are typically characterized by divergence of the associated asymptotic expansion in the form of a factorial divided by a power. In this paper, we demonstrate that in certain classes of problems that involve coalescing singularities, a more general type of exponential-over-power divergence must be used. As a model example, we study the water waves produced by flow past an obstruction such as a surface-piercing ship. In the low speed or low Froude limit, the resultant water waves are exponentially small, and their formation is attributed to the singularities in the geometry of the obstruction. However, in cases where the singularities are closely spaced, the usual asymptotic theory fails. We present both a general asymptotic framework for handling such problems of coalescing singularities, and provide numerical and asymptotic results for particular examples. © 2015 IOP Publishing Ltd & London Mathematical Society.