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Ducke B.,Oxford Archaeology | Score D.,Oxford Archaeology | Reeves J.,Oxford Archaeology
Computers and Graphics (Pergamon) | Year: 2011

Multiview (n-view or multiple view) 3D reconstruction is the computationally complex process by which a full 3D model is derived from a series of overlapping images. It is based on research in the field of computer vision, which in turn relies on older methods from photogrammetry. This report presents a multiview reconstruction tool chain composed from various freely available, open source components and a practical application example in the form of a 3D model of an archaeological site. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Bates M.R.,University of Wales Trinity Saint David | Champness C.,Oxford Archaeology | Haggart A.,University of Greenwich | Macphail R.I.,University College London | And 3 more authors.
Proceedings of the Geologists' Association | Year: 2014

This paper discusses the results of the investigation of Pleistocene sediments at the Royal Oak Portal (ROP) site on the new Crossrail scheme near Paddington Station, London. The site was sampled and recorded in May 2011 by archaeologists from Oxford Archaeology commissioned by Crossrail Ltd. The investigation revealed a sedimentary sequence associated with cool climate waterlain deposition towards the edge of the River Westbourne floodplain. During excavation an assemblage of around 100 identifiable large mammal bones was recovered, dating to the Late Pleistocene. The major concentration of bones, from bison and reindeer, was located and excavated from a shallow sequence of sediments. Analysis of the bones indicates that they represent a natural death assemblage, scavenged and subsequently disarticulated, transported by water, exposed and further dispersed and broken by trampling. The site is of regional and national importance because the assemblage derives from a well-constrained geological context, with associated dating evidence suggesting accumulation during the later parts of Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5 and continuing within MIS 4. The site is also of significance because it is one of a growing number of recently discovered sites away from the main fluvial archive for the British Middle and Upper Pleistocene. These sites have the potential to add significantly to our understanding of parts of the Pleistocene record that remain difficult to document through the investigation of the more active systems associated with major rivers such as the Thames, Severn or Trent. © 2013 The Geologists' Association.

Pelling R.,English Heritage | Campbell G.,English Heritage | Carruthers W.,Sawmills House | Hunter K.,Oxford Archaeology | Marshall P.,English Heritage
Vegetation History and Archaeobotany | Year: 2014

While conducting a review of published archaeobotanical remains from southern and central England, it became apparent that contamination (intrusion and residuality) was a notable, recurring theme in many assemblages. This problem is most acute in some key periods in which plant assemblages are generally less abundant than in others, such as the Neolithic and the early medieval (Saxon) periods. While most archaeobotanists are aware of the potential for contamination, without direct dates it is often difficult to demonstrate and it is likely to have obscured the true patterns in the data. Contamination becomes particularly problematic once poorly or incorrectly phased data enter the secondary literature. A number of case studies are presented, including newly dated material from a high profile excavation at Durrington Walls, Wiltshire. The importance of direct dating of plant remains is discussed. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Henderson R.C.,University of Oxford | Lee-Thorp J.,University of Oxford | Loe L.,Oxford Archaeology
American Journal of Physical Anthropology | Year: 2014

High resolution incremental isotopic analysis of the dentine from early forming teeth, especially first molars (M1s), provides a means to assess the effects of poor childhood nutrition and healthcare on individuals in an assemblage where there are no infants to study. This approach is applied to an 18th and 19th century cemetery population associated with St Saviour's Almshouse burial ground in Southwark, London, to assess whether, or how, early dietary history, including weaning age, influenced health and nutritional status. The results show a general pattern in which non-breast milk foods were introduced before or by 6 months of age, as indicated by elevated δ15N during this period. Almost all individuals for which we also have second molar (M2) records, showed lower δ15N values from a very young age (>1 year) until approximately 8-10 years, compared to adult values. The overall results show a significant difference in δ1 3C (p = 0 to 4sf, F=17.327) and a weaker statistical difference in δ15N between males and females (p=0.019, F=5.581). One possible cause of this is a difference in the diet of males and females early in life, or alternatively, a greater susceptibility of males to nutritional deprivation compared to females. The latter argument is strengthened by a significant difference in the incidence of enamel hypoplasia between the males and females, with 7.7% of male teeth showing defects, compared to 3.9% of females. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Phimester J.,Oxford Archaeology | Tait J.,English Heritage
Landscapes (United Kingdom) | Year: 2014

Corsham, in rural Wiltshire south-west of Chippenham (UK), is a multilayered above-ground and below-ground site that encompasses historic components relating to nineteenth-and twentieth-century industrial and military heritage. This article focuses on its subterranean side, which is of particular archaeological significance but which we argue can be investigated and experienced as a landscape. Created in the nineteenth century for the mining of Bath stone, in the Second World War its network of deep tunnels and caverns was converted to accommodate an ammunition depot, aircraft engine factory and an RAF command centre. Arguably the most significant use of this vast below-ground domain, however, came during the Cold War, as the UK’s Central Government War Headquarters, (CGWHQ), known at the time under code names such as ‘Burlington’ and ‘Turnstile’. Finally decommissioned by the military in 2004, after almost 40 years of ‘mothballing’ and slow decay, it has now become a focus of heritage study and interest, and (although inaccessible) is emerging as an iconic landscape of memory, parts of which now have statutory protection. This article presents the results of applying landscape-based approaches to the subterranean domain of what is too easily considered purely as a heritage site. © Oxbow Books Ltd 2014.

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