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Haines-Gadd M.,Cranfield University | Hasegawa A.,Cranfield University | Hooper R.,Cranfield University | Huck Q.,Cranfield University | And 5 more authors.
Design Studies | Year: 2015

With the world becoming increasingly urbanised, emergency sanitation for these environments have been found limited and insufficient. Governments and NGOs are becoming aware that changes need to be made and innovative solutions developed fast. Oxfam GB in collaboration with C4D of Cranfield University undertook a design brief to develop a low-tech sanitation solution for urban emergencies to be completed within a limited time frame. A multidisciplinary team of designers and engineers developed a rapid, low cost, design-led innovation framework, which captured stakeholder knowledge to create a solution that addressed the problem and was feasible for production. This article reveals the journey from design brief to pre-production in eight weeks culminating in the successful creation of a new product. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Rangecroft S.,University of Exeter | Harrison S.,University of Exeter | Anderson K.,University of Exeter | Magrath J.,Oxfam GB | And 2 more authors.
Ambio | Year: 2013

Climate change is projected to have a strongly negative effect on water supplies in the arid mountains of South America, significantly impacting millions of people. As one of the poorest countries in the region, Bolivia is particularly vulnerable to such changes due to its limited capacity to adapt. Water security is threatened further by glacial recession with Bolivian glaciers losing nearly halftheir ice mass over the past 50 years raising serious water management concerns. This review examines current trends in water availability and glacier melt in the Bolivian Andes, assesses the driving factors of reduced water availability and identifies key gaps in our knowledge of the Andean cryosphere. The lack of research regarding permafrost water sources in the Bolivian Andes is addressed, with focus on the potential contribution to mountain water supplies provided by rock glaciers. © Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences 2013. Source


Magrath J.,Oxfam GB
Local Environment | Year: 2010

Farmers and pastoralists in Africa are remarkably consistent across countries in how they report climate is changing. These changes are still relatively small but, combined with the effects of chronic poverty, disease and environmental degradation, are already having severe human consequences. The changes are consistent with what is expected to occur due to man-made global warming and will increase. Women are especially impacted. Africa is least responsible for greenhouse gas emissions, but will suffer some of the most damaging consequences. Adaptation is essential. This will require finance from international sources. However, there is much African governments can and should do to start. Boosting adaptation to current climatic variability and shocks and tackling poverty will bring benefits today and for the future. © 2010 Taylor & Francis. Source


Macintyre K.,Aidspan | Macintyre K.,Global Development Systems | Andrinopoulos K.,Global Development Systems | Moses N.,Oxfam GB | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Background: In many communities, older men (i.e., over 25 years of age) have not come forward for Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision (VMMC) services. Reasons for low demand among this group of men are not well understood, and may vary across geographic and cultural contexts. This paper examines the facilitators and barriers to VMMC demand in Turkana County, Kenya, with a focus on older men. This is one of the regions targeted by the VMMC program in Kenya because the Turkana ethnic group does not traditionally circumcise, and the rates of HIV and STD transmission are high. Methods and Findings: Twenty focus group discussions and 69 in-depth interviews were conducted with circumcised and uncircumcised men and their partners to elicit their attitudes and perceptions toward male circumcision. The interviews were conducted in urban, peri-urban, and rural communities across Turkana. Our results show that barriers to circumcision include stigma associated with VMMC, the perception of low risk for HIV for older men and their "protection by marriage," cultural norms, and a lack of health infrastructure. Facilitators include stigma against not being circumcised (since circumcision is associated with modernity), protection against disease including HIV, and cleanliness. It was also noted that older men should adopt the practice to serve as role models to younger men. Conclusions: Both men and women were generally supportive of VMMC, but overcoming barriers with appropriate communication messages and high quality services will be challenging. The justification of circumcision being a biomedical procedure for protection against HIV will be the most important message for any communication strategy. © 2014 Macintyre et al. Source


McBride A.,Oxfam GB
Waterlines | Year: 2013

Humanitarian field staff, product designers and manufacturers attended a one-day event to tackle sanitation challenges in humanitarian situations. The challenges included designing a household handwashing device, a latrine superstructure, a trench lining for latrines in difficult soils, and a raised latrine for rocky ground and areas of high water tables. Design criteria included: a manufactured commodity, lightweight and robust, packable and portable, and low cost. A number of innovative designs were discussed which will now be developed into prototypes for testing in the field. © Practical Action Publishing, 2013. Source

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