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Washington, DC, United States

Gneiting U.,Oxfam America | Schmitz H.P.,University of San Diego
Health Policy and Planning | Year: 2016

Smoking and drinking constitute two risk factors contributing to the rising burden of non-communicable diseases in low- and middle-income countries. Both issues have gained increased international attention, but tobacco control has made more sustained progress in terms of international and domestic policy commitments, resources dedicated to reducing harm, and reduction of tobacco use in many high-income countries. The research presented here offers insights into why risk factors with comparable levels of harm experience different trajectories of global attention. The analysis focuses particular attention on the role of dedicated global health networks composed of individuals and organizations producing research and engaging in advocacy on a given health problem. Variation in issue characteristics and the policy environment shape the opportunities and challenges of global health networks focused on reducing the burden of disease. What sets the tobacco case apart was the ability of tobacco control advocates to create and maintain a consensus on policy solutions, expand their reach in low- and middle-income countries and combine evidence-based research with advocacy reaching beyond the public health-centered focus of the core network. In contrast, a similar network in the alcohol case struggled with expanding its reach and has yet to overcome divisions based on competing problem definitions and solutions to alcohol harm. The tobacco control network evolved from a group of dedicated individuals to a global coalition of membership-based organizations, whereas the alcohol control network remains at the stage of a collection of dedicated and like-minded individuals. © 2016 The Author; all rights reserved.

Corporations in the extractive industries often state their commitment to "corporate social responsibility" principles, but their actual implementation of these principles, particularly in developing countries, is questionable. This contradiction between rhetoric and reality is attributable to the fact that these companies have not fully integrated CSR into their business models. This can been seen in assessments of projects' costs and benefits, project and technology selection, respect for community consent, and performance incentive structures. The Marlin gold mine in Guatemala provides a concrete example of these sharp contradictions between stated CSR commitments and actual performance. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Governments often grant oil and mining concessions with little or no regard for the potential impact that resource extraction could have on agricultural production. There is often little accessible data available to demonstrate the extent to which oil and mining concessions have been made on agriculture land. The lack of information contributes to poor coordination among government agencies involved in decision-making regarding use of land, which in turn hinders the implementation of effective public policy solutions for reducing conflict and ensuring that natural resource wealth contributes to poverty reduction in rural areas. In this article I argue that geographic mapping of the overlaps between oil and mining concessions and agriculturally productive areas can make a contribution to improving public policy and decision-making regarding land-use priorities. Graphic data can help better inform policy-makers and the public about where concessions are being granted and where potential conflicts with agricultural production may emerge. I discuss two cases in particular where oil and mining activities have come into direct conflict with agriculture: Peru and Ghana. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Cohen M.J.,Oxfam America | Garrett J.L.,Mozambique SAKSS Programme
Environment and Urbanization | Year: 2010

Both national and international policy responses to the rapid food price increases in 2007 and the first half of 2008 did little to address the very serious impacts on low-income urban dwellers. The speeches, declarations, plans and pledges duly noted the vulnerability of poor urban dwellers to food price rises, as they rely primarily on market purchases for their food (much more so than rural dwellers) and food purchases account for the bulk of their expenditure. Yet most policy prescriptions focused on addressing constraints to rural-based food production. This paper discusses why policy makers should pay greater attention to urban dwellers and describes the multiple pathways through which food price increases have impacts on urban people. It also highlights the evidence on how these impacts have played out during this crisis and discusses how current policy responses could be adjusted and improved to better protect the urban poor in the short and longer term. © 2010 International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED).

DUBLIN--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Research and Markets (http://www.researchandmarkets.com/research/ztkt59/diabetic) has announced the addition of the "Diabetic Nephropathy - Pipeline Review, H1 2015" report to their offering. This report provides comprehensive information on the therapeutic development for Diabetic Nephropathy, complete with comparative analysis at various stages, therapeutics assessment by drug target, mechanism of action (MoA), route of administration (RoA) and molecule type, along with latest updates, and featured news and press releases. It also reviews key players involved in the therapeutic development for Diabetic Nephropathy and special features on late-stage and discontinued projects. The report enhances decision making capabilities and help to create effective counter strategies to gain competitive advantage. It strengthens R&D pipelines by identifying new targets and MOAs to produce first-in-class and best-in-class products.

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