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Bertola A.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Bertola A.,University of Nice Sophia Antipolis | Bonnafous S.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Bonnafous S.,University of Nice Sophia Antipolis | And 15 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2010

Background: Obesity modulates inflammation and activation of immune pathways which can lead to liver complications. We aimed at identifying expression patterns of inflammatory and immune response genes specifically associated with obesity and NASH in the liver of morbidly obese patients. Methodology/Principal Findings: Expression of 222 genes was evaluated by quantitative RT-PCR in the liver of morbidly obese patients with histologically normal liver (n = 6), or with severe steatosis without (n = 6) or with NASH (n = 6), and in lean controls (n = 5). Hepatic expression of 58 out of 222 inflammatory and immune response genes was upregulated in NASH patients. The most notable changes occurred in genes encoding chemokines and chemokine receptors involved in leukocyte recruitment, CD and cytokines involved in the T cell activation towards a Th1 phenotype, and immune semaphorins. This regulation seems to be specific for the liver since visceral adipose tissue expression and serum levels of MCP1, IP10, TNFa and IL6 were not modified. Importantly, 47 other genes were already upregulated in histologically normal liver (e.g. CRP, Toll-like receptor (TLR) pathway). Interestingly, serum palmitate, known to activate the TLR pathway, was increased with steatosis. Conclusion/Significance: The liver of obese patients without histological abnormalities already displayed a low-grade inflammation and could be more responsive to activators of the TLR pathway. NASH was then characterized by a specific gene signature. These findings help to identify new potential actors of the pathogenesis of NAFLD. © 2010 Bertola et al.

Barr J.,OWL Genomics | Barr J.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Barr J.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Vazquez-Chantada M.,Research Center Biomedica En Red Of Enfermedades Hepaticas gestivas | And 22 more authors.
Journal of Proteome Research | Year: 2010

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common form of chronic liver disease in most western countries. Current NAFLD diagnosis methods (e.g., liver biopsy analysis or imaging techniques) are poorly suited as tests for such a prevalent condition, from both a clinical and financial point of view. The present work aims to demonstrate the potential utility of serum metabolic profiling in defining phenotypic biomarkers that could be useful in NAFLD management. A parallel animal model/human NAFLD exploratory metabolomics approach was employed, using ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) to analyze 42 serum samples collected from nondiabetic, morbidly obese, biopsy-proven NAFLD patients, and 17 animals belonging to the glycine N-methyltransferase knockout (GNMT-KO) NAFLD mouse model. Multivariate statistical analysis of the data revealed a series of common biomarkers that were significantly altered in the NAFLD (GNMT-KO) subjects in comparison to their normal liver counterparts (WT). Many of the compounds observed could be associated with biochemical perturbations associated with liver dysfunction (e.g., reduced Creatine) and inflammation (e.g., eicosanoid signaling). This differential metabolic phenotyping approach may have a future role as a supplement for clinical decision making in NAFLD and in the adaption to more individualized treatment protocols. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

Vazquez-Chantada M.,CIBER ISCIII | Gonzalez-Lahera A.,CIBER ISCIII | Martinez-Arranz I.,OWL Genomics | Garcia-Monzon C.,Hospital Universitario Santa Cristina | And 44 more authors.
Hepatology | Year: 2013

Susceptibility to develop nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has genetic bases, but the associated variants are uncertain. The aim of the present study was to identify genetic variants that could help to prognose and further understand the genetics and development of NAFLD. Allele frequencies of 3,072 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 92 genes were characterized in 69 NAFLD patients and 217 healthy individuals. The markers that showed significant allele-frequency differences in the pilot groups were subsequently studied in 451 NAFLD patients and 304 healthy controls. Besides this, 4,414 type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) cases and 4,567 controls were genotyped. Liver expression of the associated gene was measured and the effect of its potential role was studied by silencing the gene in vitro. Whole genome expression, oxidative stress (OS), and the consequences of oleic acid (OA)-enriched medium on lipid accumulation in siSLC2A1-THLE2 cells were studied by gene-expression analysis, dihydroethidium staining, BODIPY, and quantification of intracellular triglyceride content, respectively. Several SNPs of SLC2A1 (solute carrier family 2 [facilitated glucose transporter] member 1) showed association with NAFLD, but not with T2DM, being the haplotype containing the minor allele of SLC2A1 sequence related to the susceptibility to develop NAFLD. Gene-expression analysis demonstrated a significant down-regulation of SLC2A1 in NAFLD livers. Enrichment functional analyses of transcriptome profiles drove us to demonstrate that in vitro silencing of SLC2A1 induces an increased OS activity and a higher lipid accumulation under OA treatment. Conclusions: Genetic variants of SLC2A1 are associated with NAFLD, and in vitro down-regulation of this gene promotes lipid accumulation. Moreover, the oxidative response detected in siSLC2A1-THLE2 cells corroborated the antioxidant properties previously related to this gene and linked the most representative clinical characteristics of NAFLD patients: oxidative injury and increased lipid storage. © 2012 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

Gonzalez E.,CIC Biomagune | van Liempd S.,CIC Biomagune | Conde-Vancells J.,CIC Biomagune | Gutierrez-de Juan V.,CIC Biomagune | And 10 more authors.
Metabolomics | Year: 2012

A key interest in clinical diagnosis and pharmaceutical industry is to have a repertoire of noninvasive biomarkers to-individually or in combination-be able to infer or predict the degree of liver injury caused by pathological conditions or drugs. Metabolomics-a comprehensive study of global metabolites-has become a highly sensitive and powerful tool for biomarker discovery thanks to recent technological advances. An ultra-performance liquid chromatography/time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC/TOF MS/MS)-based metabolomics approach was employed to investigate sera from galactosamine-treated rats to find potential biomarkers for acute liver injury. Hepatic damage was quantified by determining serum transaminase activity and in situ liver histological lesions. Principal component analysis in combination with coefficient of correlation analysis was used for biomarker selection and identification. According to the data, serum levels of several metabolites including glucose, amino acids, and membrane lipids were significantly modified, some of them showing a high correlation with the degree of liver damage determined by histological examination of the livers. In conclusion, this study supports that UPLC-MS/MS based serum metabolomics in experimental animal models could be a powerful approach to search for biomarkers for drug- or disease-induced liver injury. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

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