OWI Oel Waerme Institute GmbH

Herzogenrath, Germany

OWI Oel Waerme Institute GmbH

Herzogenrath, Germany

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Otto S.,BFI VDEh Betriebsforschungsinstitut GmbH | Adler W.,BFI VDEh Betriebsforschungsinstitut GmbH | Stranzinger B.,BFI VDEh Betriebsforschungsinstitut GmbH | Ackermann H.,OWI Oel Waerme Institute GmbH | And 6 more authors.
Gaswaerme International | Year: 2017

Deposits forming on heat exchangers in direct fired thermoprocessing plants impair their operation. By experiments and analysis of the deposits their origin and impact in steel treatment furnaces were examined. Experimental volatilization rates for chromium and molybdenum were obtained and in case of chromium rates were also calculated. For the calculations, the knowledge of the structure of the oxide scale on the steel is required. By reproducing the deposits in a burner, rig recommendations concerning prevention and removal of deposits were derived.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: LCE-02-2015 | Award Amount: 5.47M | Year: 2016

The overall objective of Residue2Heat is to enable the utilization of sustainable, ash rich biomass and residues in residential heating applications (20-200 kWth) to provide sustainable heat at a competitive price. In this concept, various 2nd generation agricultural, and forestry residue streams are converted into a liquid energy carrier near the biomass origin at an economic viable scale of 15-30 MWth using the fast pyrolysis process. Subsequently, the fast pyrolysis bio-oil (FPBO) is distributed to a large number of residential end-users. The FPBO should fulfill at least the draft CEN-specification for replacement of domestic heating oil and comply with REACH regulation. Additional quality control aspects for this application include the removal of extractives and solids from the FPBO. Ash is recovered from the fast pyrolysis process as a separate stream, and recycling and/or re-use will be evaluated in detail. Existing high efficient, condensing boilers are used as starting point in the project, as well as a proven, low emission blue-flame type burner. Within Residue2Heat technical development work is performed on the modification of such systems to enable FPBO as fuel. The emission control and energy efficiency of the heating systems are optimized by dedicated modeling of FPBO atomization and combustion kinetics, supported by single droplet combustion tests and spray characterization. This route benefits from the flexible nature of the fast pyrolysis process, allowing the use of various lignocellulosic biomass streams, but also by using modified residential heating systems for which manufacturing capabilities, market development and product distribution are already in place. Dedicated tasks are included to assess the environmental and social impacts, risks analysis and public acceptance. Additionally, business and market assessment activities are performed including specific issues on health and safety relevant to FPBO-fuelled residential boilers.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: JTI-CP-FCH | Phase: SP1-JTI-FCH.2012.3.1;SP1-JTI-FCH.2012.3.5 | Award Amount: 6.10M | Year: 2013

The vision of the CISTEM project is to develop a new fuel cell (FC) based CHP technology, which is suitable for fitting into large scale peak shaving systems in relation to wind mills, natural gas and SMART grid applications. The technology should be integrated with localized power/heat production in order to utilize the heat from the FC via district heating and should deliver an electrical output of up to 100kW. Additionally the CHP system should be fuel flexible by use of natural gas or use of hydrogen and oxygen which can be provided by electrolysis. This gives the additional opportunity to store electrical energy in case of net overproduction by production of hydrogen and oxygen for use in the CHP system and gives an additional performance boost for the fuel cell. The main idea of the project is a combined development of fuel cell technology and CHP system design. This gives the opportunity to develop an ideal new fuel cell technology for the special requirements of a CHP system in relation to efficiency, costs and lifetime. On the other hand the CHP system development can take into account the special advantages and disadvantages of the new fuel cell technology to realize an optimal system design. The purpose of the CISTEM project is to show a proof of concept of high temperature PEM (HT-PEM) MEA technology for large combined heat and power (CHP) systems. A CHP system of 100 kWel will be set up and demonstrated. These CHP system size is suitable for district heat and power supply. The system will be build up modularly, with FC units of each 5 kWel output. This strategy of numbering up will achieve an optimal adaption of the CHP system size to a very wide area of applications, e.g. different building sizes or demands for peak shaving application. Within CISTEM at least two 5 kWel modules will be implemented as hardware; the remaining 18 modules will be implemented as emulated modules in a hardware in the loop (HIL) test bench. The advantages of the 5 kW modular units are: suitable for mass production at lower production costs, higher system efficiency due to optimized operation of each unit, maintenance on the run, stability and reliability of the whole system. With the help of the HIL approach different climate conditions representing the European-wide load profiles can be emulated in detail. Furthermore, interfaces to smart grid application will be prepared. Increased electrical efficiency for the FC will be obtained by the utilization of oxygen from the electrolyser which is normally wasted, as well as by general improvement of the FCs. Besides, the overall energy efficiency will also be improved by utilization of the produced heat in the district heating system. The latter is facilitated by high working temperature of the HT-PEM FC (i.e. 140 - 180C).


Martin S.,German Aerospace Center | Lucka K.,OWI Oel Waerme Institute GmbH | Worner A.,German Aerospace Center | Vetter A.,Thuringer Landesanstalt fur Landwirtschaft
Chemie-Ingenieur-Technik | Year: 2011

Although there have been recent technical improvements, still there are numerous hurdles that stand against a widespread introduction of hydrogen- and fuel cell technology to the market. Besides the reduction of the production costs particular attention should be paid to the hydrogen infrastructure. Also the particular hydrogen production method is of importance. To evaluate the production of the secondary energy carrier hydrogen in a positive way, its production from renewable energy sources is of vital importance. Assuming that from 2020onwards an increasing amount of fuel cell powered vehicles is introduced to the market, the reforming of biofuels is a promising option. The presented evaluations of theoretical potentials show that in 2020 6-8% of the current fuel consumption could be covered by sustainably produced hydrogen. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Engelhardt P.,OWI Oel Waerme Institute GmbH | Maximini M.,OWI Oel Waerme Institute GmbH | Beckmann F.,Inhouse Engineering GmbH | Brenner M.,Behr GmbH and Co. KG
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy | Year: 2012

This paper presents experimental results of a diesel steam reforming fuel processor operated in conjunction with a gas cleanup module and coupled operation with a PEM fuel cell. The fuel processor was operated with two different precious-metal based reformer catalysts, using diesel surrogate with a sulfur content of less than 2 ppmw as fuel. The first reformer catalyst entails an increasing residual hydrocarbon concentration for increasing reformer fuel feed. The second reformer catalyst exhibits a significantly lower residual hydrocarbon concentration in the reformate gas. Coupled operation of the fuel processor/gas cleanup with a PEM stack shows the impact of residual hydrocarbons on fuel cell performance. Using the second reformer catalyst, the fuel processor/gas cleanup was successfully coupled to an 80-cell stack generating an electric power output of up to 1.5 kWel. The system is foreseen to be used as a mobile auxiliary power unit (APU) for caravans and yachts or as a stationary energy supply. Highlights: Two precious-metal catalysts for diesel steam reforming tested. Coupled operation of fuel processor, gas cleanup and PEM fuel cell successful. Sensitivity of stack voltage to residual hydrocarbons observed. Operational boundaries for coupled system operation established. © 2012 Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC.


Edenhofer R.,OWI Oel Waerme Institute GmbH | Lucka K.,OWI Oel Waerme Institute GmbH | Kohne H.,OWI Oel Waerme Institute GmbH
International Journal of Energy for a Clean Environment | Year: 2010

In order to acquire up-to-date data regarding particulate matter emissions of modern oil-fired domestic heating systems, measurements have been accomplished in the exhaust gas of two modern appliances using different fuel qualities. For comparison with solid fuels, additional measurements have been taken using a wood pellet burner. The measurement results in emission factors of less than ETSP ≈ 0.075 mg/MJ for standard heating fuel and E TSP ≈ 0.032 mg/MJ for low-sulfur heating fuel (for comparison: ETSP ≈ 10.7 mg/MJ at the wood pellet boiler) at intermittent mode of operation. Other influential parameters than the sulfur content are the type of the boiler, where the condensing boiler displays slightly lower particle emissions than the low-temperature boiler, and the mode of operation, which results in distinctly lower values for steady-state operation. The addition of up to 20% fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) in the fuel does not have a significant influence on the particle emissions. The main fraction of the emitted particles is in the range below 1 μm particle size (PM 1) for all the tested fuels and blends. © 2010 by Begell House, Inc.


Haas-Wittmuess R.,OWI Oel Waerme Institute GmbH | Paesler L.,OWI Oel Waerme Institute GmbH | Pillai R.,OWI Oel Waerme Institute GmbH | Yildiz G.,OWI Oel Waerme Institute GmbH | And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Energy for a Clean Environment | Year: 2010

Conventional central power generation shows a high electrical efficiency, but the transmission of the energy to the consumer is hindered by distribution losses. Decentralized combined heat and power (CHP) generation in proximity to the customer is an alternative to reduce transmission losses. Based on a natural gas-fired micro-CHP system, a liquid fuel burner system is developed. The modification of the natural gas system for operation with light fuel oil (no. 2) is the focus of this project. An innovative vaporization technique, i.e., cool flame vaporization, is used to create a homogenous fuel-air mixture. The combustion of the fuel-air mixture is surface stabilized, using the surface burner of the natural gas system. Different atomization techniques and nitrogen oxide reduction concepts, such as air staging and exhaust gas recirculation, were evaluated. By fulfilling stringent emission targets and safe operation in the complete power range, the concept of micro-CHP aims to achieve an efficient use of limited resources. © 2010 by Begell House, Inc.


Kleinohl N.,OWI Oel Waerme Institute GmbH | Hansen J.B.,Haldor Topsøe | Nehter P.,ThyssenKrupp | Modarresi H.,Haldor Topsøe | And 3 more authors.
Materials Performance and Characterization | Year: 2015

In the near future, ships will need more efficient power generation technologies for auxiliary power supply than those used currently. In the project SchiffsIntegration BrennstoffZelle (SchIBZ), a fuel cell system is being developed to increase the electrical efficiency of on-board power supply systems. In order to avoid the limitation of hydrogen storage, the on-site fuel processing of hydrocarbons offered an opportunity for the hydrogen supply of fuel cell systems to be operated in remote locations. As fuel standard European road diesel was processed with the process of adiabatic prereforming, a steam-reforming derivate. A solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) was coupled with this fuel processor and was fed with standard European diesel fuel. Two flexible test rigs were developed to test the fuel processor and the SOFC either combined or independently. During combined operation, the SOFC modules were fed with feedstock gas from the fuel processor, which ran on standard European diesel fuel. Combined operation of both test rigs at steady state was achieved for more than 1000 h. For the whole experimental runtime, the fuel processor delivered sufficient feedstock quality for the SOFC, and no significant voltage degradation (about 0.5 %) of the SOFC modules was observed over 1000 h of operation. This low value of degradation is known for the operation of SOFC with pure hydrogen and methane without impurities. Copyright © 2015 by ASTM International.


Kreutzmann D.,OWI Oel Waerme Institute GmbH | Montmann D.,OWI Oel Waerme Institute GmbH | Pohland Vom Schloss H.,OWI Oel Waerme Institute GmbH | Lucka K.,OWI Oel Waerme Institute GmbH | And 3 more authors.
Chemie-Ingenieur-Technik | Year: 2012

The in situ detection of damage of insulating materials in thermal processing plants is essential in ensuring a longer operating life. A temperature rise near the wall is an indication of damaged insulation. It was observed during the investigation that measurement of temperature in the insulating material contributed significantly to the prediction of damage. Numerical methods showed that the temperature distribution in the wall can be used to determine the depth of damage. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

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