Sheng-Fowler L.,OVRR |
Cai F.,OVRR |
Cai F.,U.S. National Cancer Institute |
Fu H.,OVRR |
And 12 more authors.
International Journal of Biological Sciences
Vaccines contain residual DNA derived from the cells used to produce them. As part of our investigation to assess the risk of this cellular DNA, we are developing a quantitative in vivo assay to assess the oncogenicity of DNA. In an earlier study, we had generated expression plasmids for two oncogenes - human activated T24-H-ras and murine c-myc - and had shown that these two plasmids, pMSV-T24-H-ras and pMSV-c-myc, could act in concert to induce tumors in mice, although the efficiency was low. In this study, we took two approaches to increase the oncogenic efficiency: 1) both oncogene-expression cassettes were placed on the same plasmid; 2) transfection facilitators, which increase DNA uptake and expression in vitro, were tested. The dual-expression plasmid, pMSV-T24-H-ras/MSV-c-myc, is about 20-fold more efficient at tumor induction in newborn NIH Swiss mice than the separate expression plasmids, with tumors being induced with 1 μg of the dual-expression plasmid DNA. However, none of the transfection facilitators tested increased the efficiency of tumor induction. Based on these data, the dual-expression plasmid pMSV-T24-H-ras/MSV-c-myc will be used as the positive control to develop a sensitive and quantitative animal assay that can be used to assess the oncogenic activity of DNA. © Ivyspring International Publisher. Source
Rivers K.,OVRR |
Bowen L.E.,Southern Research Institute |
Bowen L.E.,Alion Science and Technology Corporation |
Gao J.,OVRR |
And 4 more authors.
Background: To evaluate immunity against influenza, mouse challenge studies are typically performed by intranasal instillation of a virus suspension to anesthetized animals. This results in an unnatural environment in the lower respiratory tract during infection, and therefore there is some concern that immune mechanisms identified in this model may not reflect those that protect against infectious virus particles delivered directly to the lower respiratory tract as an aerosol. Method. To evaluate differences in protection against instilled and inhaled virus, mice were immunized with influenza antigens known to induce antibody or cell-mediated responses and then challenged with 100 LD50 A/PR/8/34 (PR8) in the form of aerosol (inhaled) or liquid suspension (instilled). Results: Mice immunized with recombinant adenovirus (Ad) expressing hemagglutinin were protected against weight loss and death in both challenge models, however immunization with Ad expressing nucleoprotein of influenza A (NPA) or M2 resulted in greater protection against inhaled aerosolized virus than virus instilled in liquid suspension. Ad-M2, but not Ad-NPA-immunized mice were protected against a lower instillation challenge dose. Conclusions: These results demonstrate differences in protection that are dependent on challenge method, and suggest that cell-mediated immunity may be more accurately demonstrated in mouse inhalation studies. Furthermore, the data suggest immune mechanisms generally characterized as incomplete or weak in mouse models using liquid intranasal challenge may offer greater immunity against influenza infection than previously thought. © 2013 Rivers et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source