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George, South Africa

Nkosi B.D.,ARC LBD Animal Production Institute | Meeske R.,Outeniqua Research Farm | Groenewald I.B.,University of the Free State
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2010

Experiment was conducted to study the effect of whey and molasses addition on potato hash at ensiling on silage quality and nutrient digestibility in sheep. Potato hash silage was produced by mixing 800 g/kg potato hash with 200 g/kg hay, and ensiled in 210 l drums for 90 days. Higher (P<0.05) concentrations of lactic acid and reduced pH, ammonia-N and butyric acid occurred in the whey and molasses treated silages compared to the control. Furthermore, feed intake and nutrient digestibility ere improved (P<0.05) with whey and molasses addition compared to the control. It was concluded that feeding the potato hash silage without supplementation may lead to poor animal performance due to low dry matter content of the silage. Source

Thomas R.,University of the Free State | Nkosi B.D.,ARC Animal Production Institute | Umesiobi D.O.,University of the Free State | Meeske R.,Outeniqua Research Farm | And 2 more authors.
South African Journal of Animal Sciences | Year: 2010

Potato hash was mixed with wheat bran at 7:3 ratio, treated with homofermentative LAB inoculant (BMF, bonsilage forte), heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria (LAB) (LFLB, Lalsil Fresh LB) and without LAB inoculant and ensiled in 210 L drums for 90 days. After 90 days of ensiling, concentrates that contained 40% potato hash silage (PHS) were formulated and the treatment groups were control (no silage), untreated PHS, BMF treated PHS and LFLB treated PHS. The diets were fed to 64 growing pigs (60 days old and 30.4 ± 2.3 kg body mass). The pigs were allocated in a complete randomized block design with four treatments, and each treatment consisted of eight boars and eight sows. Pigs were fed ad libitum, feed intake was measured daily while body masses were recorded at the start and weekly throughout the experimental period. The dry matter intake (DMI) was higher in the control diet (1062 g/kg) than in the untreated PHS diets (933 g/kg), BMF treated PHS (873 g/kg) and LFLB treated PHS (919 g/kg) diets, respectively. Pigs in the control group had higher final body weight (60.77 kg), average daily gain (ADG) (551 g/d) and better feed conversion rate (FCR) (4.92 g/g) at the end of the trial compared to those in other treatment groups. It can be concluded that potato hash silage produced with or without LAB inoculants had the same effect on the growth performance of growing pigs. However, further work is needed to evaluate the effects of higher dietary inclusion levels (>40 %) of ensiled potato hash on pig growth and reproductive performance. © South African Society for Animal Science. Source

Nkosi B.D.,ARC Animal Production Institute | Nkosi B.D.,Kansas State University | Vadlani P.V.,Kansas State University | Brijwani K.,Kansas State University | And 2 more authors.
South African Journal of Animal Sciences | Year: 2012

A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of bacterial inoculation and cellulase on the fermentation quality of ensiled whole-crop sweet sorghum (WCSS, Sorghum bicolor L. Moench). The WCSS (323 g dry matter (DM)/kg, 251 g water soluble carbohydrates (WSC)/kg DM, 43 g crude protein (CP)/kg DM and 439 g neutral detergent fibre (NDF)/kg DM) was ensiled with i) no additive (control); ii) Lactobacillus buchneri (LB); iii) Lactobacillus plantarum (LP); and iv) LB+E, a combination of LB and enzyme. These treatments were ensiled in 1 L anaerobic jars for 25 days. The jars were opened on days 3, 7 and 15 to determine pH, while those of day 25 were sampled to determine nutrient composition, fermentation characteristics and aerobic stability. Inoculation reduced pH, butyric acid and ammonia-N and increased lactic acid content in sweet sorghum silage compared with the control. The aerobic stability of WCSS was improved with LB, while it was reduced with the homofermentative LP treatment compared with the control. The LB+E reduced the fibre, but increased residual WSC of silage. The aerobic stability of LB+E silage was lower than LB treated silage. Using enzymes to increase the WSC content of crops that already have high levels of WSC may result in reduced aerobic stability of silage. Further work is needed to evaluate these effects on silage produced on farm scale and on animal production performance. Source

Swanepoel P.A.,Outeniqua Research Farm | du Preez C.C.,University of the Free State | Botha P.R.,Outeniqua Research Farm | Snyman H.A.,University of the Free State | Habig J.,Plant Protection Research Institute
Geoderma | Year: 2014

Development of a soil quality index for kikuyu (Pennisetum clandestinum)-ryegrasss (Lolium spp.) pasture systems in the southern Cape of South Africa is important since there are certain warning signs that their sustainability is being threatened. A total of 142 pastures throughout the region were sampled and several soil physical, chemical and biological indicators were quantified. A minimum data set of the most sensitive indicators was chosen using principal component analyses. Linear scoring functions for these indicators were used to develop a soil quality index. The most sensitive indicators were: extractable P. >. gravel content. >. water holding capacity (WHC). >. exchangeable acidity (EA). >. soil organic matter (SOM). = penetration resistance (PR). >. exchangeable Mn. The soil quality index (SQI) was equated as: SQI. = 0.13 (PR). +. 0.16 (Gravel). +. 0.15 (WHC). +. 0.14 (EA). +. 0.17 (P). +. 0.12 (Mn). +. 0.13 (SOM). This soil quality index is appropriate for pasture systems in the southern Cape of South Africa, and may be useful for similar pasture systems in other areas. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source

Swanepoel P.A.,Outeniqua Research Farm | Habig J.,Plant Protection Research Institute | Du Preez C.C.,University of the Free State | Botha P.R.,Outeniqua Research Farm | Snyman H.A.,University of the Free State
Soil Research | Year: 2014

Conversion of natural rangeland to minimum-tillage kikuyu (Pennisetum clandestinum) based pastures for dairy production in the southern Cape of South Africa, may be beneficial to soil biological quality. The objective was to evaluate whether 19 years of minimum-till kikuyu-ryegrass pasture had altered the distribution and quality of biological properties formerly developed under natural rangeland. An irrigated minimum-till kikuyu-ryegrass pasture soil was compared to virgin soil with natural rangeland. Soil organic matter, soil organic C, active C, microbial biomass C, total N and enzymatic activities (β-glucosidase, urease and alkaline phosphatase) behaved similarly by having higher values in the surface layers of the cultivated pasture soil than in virgin soil, decreased with depth until they become similar at the 200-300mm depth. Acid phosphatase activity was similar (P>0.05) between soils. Vertical distribution of potentially mineralizable N was similar (P>0.05) at 0-100mm soil depth, but higher (P≤0.01) in the cultivated pasture soil than in the virgin soil. The microbial indicated along with stratification ratios for different biological indicators that the cultivated pasture soil's ecosystem functionality improved. Soil microbial functional diversity and carbon source utilisation patterns of the cultivated pasture soil and virgin soil was influenced by plant species present and root exudate composition. The soil microbial diversity, as shown by the Shannon-Weaver and Enrichment Indices, was significantly altered between cultivated pasture and the virgin soil, especially at different soil depths. A general appraisal of biological soil properties indicated that conversion of natural fynbos vegetation to irrigated minimum-till kikuyu-ryegrass pasture after 19 years of cultivation on a podzolic soil beneficial. © CSIRO 2014. Source

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