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Griffiths R.I.,Outcomes Insights Inc. | Griffiths R.I.,Johns Hopkins University | Gleeson M.L.,Outcomes Insights Inc. | Dreyling M.H.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Danese M.D.,Outcomes Insights Inc.
Cancer | Year: 2012

BACKGROUND: Clinical trials indicate that rituximab improves the survival of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Economic models using multiple data sources, including clinical trials for survival outcomes, have projected cost offsets/savings and favorable cost-effectiveness associated with rituximab. In this study, the authors evaluated survival and cost impacts of adding rituximab to first-line chemotherapy for DLBCL using a single database that reflects routine clinical practice among elderly patients in the United States. METHODS: By using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) data linked to Medicare, the authors identified 5484 elderly patients who were diagnosed with DLBCL between January 1999 and December 2005 who had claims through December 2007. Included patients began chemotherapy with or without rituximab within 180 days of diagnosis. Multivariate analyses were conducted to estimate the impact of rituximab on mortality and costs to Medicare. The cost per life-year gained of rituximab was calculated using cost and survival estimates from the multivariate analyses. RESULTS: The mean patient age was 76 years, 43% of patients had stage III or IV disease, and 64% received rituximab. In a Cox regression model, rituximab resulted in lower 4-year all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 0.68; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.61-0.74) and cancer mortality, and the incremental cumulative survival was 0.37 years. In least-squares regression, rituximab resulted in higher 4-year total costs ($23,097; 95% CI, $19,129-$27,298), immunochemotherapy costs ($12,069; 95% CI, $10,687-$13,634), other cancer costs ($7655; 95% CI, $5067-$10,489), and noncancer costs ($3461; 95% CI, $1319-$5650). The cost per life-year gained was $62,424. CONCLUSIONS: In routine clinical practice, rituximab was associated with survival benefits comparable to those observed in clinical trials. However, these benefits did not translate into the previously reported cost savings. © 2012 American Cancer Society.


Lindquist K.J.,Outcomes Insights Inc. | Danese M.D.,Outcomes Insights Inc. | Knopf K.B.,California Pacific Medical Center | Griffiths R.I.,Outcomes Insights Inc. | Griffiths R.I.,Johns Hopkins University
Annals of Oncology | Year: 2011

Background: Mortality in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) is high, and patients are likely to require hospitalizations, emergency department (ED) visits, and transfusions. The relationships between these events and the MDS complications of anemia, neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia are not well understood. Patients and methods: A total of 1864 patients registered in the United States' Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) program and aged ≥66 years old when diagnosed with MDS in 2001 or 2002 were included. Medicare claims were used to identify MDS complications and utilization (hospitalizations, ED visits, and transfusions) until death or the end of 2005. Mortality was based on SEER data. Kaplan-Meier incidence rates were estimated and multivariable Cox models were used to study the association between complications and outcomes. Results: The 3-year incidence of anemia, neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia was 81%, 25%, and 41%, and the incidence of hospitalization, ED visit, and transfusion was 62%, 42%, and 45%, respectively. Median survival time was 22 months. Cytopenia complications were significantly associated with each of these outcomes. Conclusions: All types of cytopenia are common among patients with MDS and are risk factors for high rates of health care utilization and mortality. Management of the complications of MDS may improve patient outcomes. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved.


Danese M.D.,Outcomes Insights Inc. | Lalla D.,Genentech | Brammer M.,Genentech | Doan Q.,Outcomes Insights Inc. | Knopf K.,California Pacific Medical Center
Cancer | Year: 2010

Background. Breast cancer recurrence is associated with significant morbidity, mortality, and cost. Patients with early stage HER2+ tumors are at increased risk of recurrence. The use of trastuzumab for these patients has been shown to reduce recurrences and improve overall survival. Methods. A Monte Carlo simulation was conducted based on Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results incidence rates for 2005, United States Census data for 2005, and the results of key trials of the adjuvant use of trastuzumab. Patients included in this analysis had incident, HER2+, stage I to III breast cancer. The number of recurrences that could be prevented with trastuzumab, the cardiac adverse events that might occur, and the associated cost savings were estimated. Results. Approximately 31,200 women had HER2+ breast cancer in 2005, of whom 7298 would have had a recurrence over the subsequent 5 years despite standard of care adjuvant treatment. If trastuzumab were added to their regimen, 2791 women might have avoided recurrence, and 948 may have had an asymptomatic or symptomatic cardiac adverse event, for a ratio of expected recurrences to cardiac adverse events of 3.2 (95% confidence interval, 1.5-5.9). In economic terms, avoidance of future breast cancer recurrences was associated with lifetime reduction in future direct and indirect costs on the order of $240 million to $1.7 billion. Conclusions. On the basis of the simulation results, targeting HER2+ tumors with trastuzumab in the adjuvant setting should prevent a significant number of women from recurrence events, with important outcomes for patients, physicians, payers, and society. Copyright © 2010 American Cancer Society.


Danese M.D.,Outcomes Insights Inc. | Griffiths R.I.,Outcomes Insights Inc. | Griffiths R.I.,Johns Hopkins University | Gleeson M.,Outcomes Insights Inc. | And 5 more authors.
Blood | Year: 2011

The study goal was to characterize older chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients and to evaluate outcomes in those patients who initiated infused therapy. Patients 66 years of age and older in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program with a CLL diagnosis were matched to their Medicare Part A and Part B claims for long-term follow-up. Treatment patterns, survival after initiation of infused therapy, and both hematologic and hospitalization outcomes were assessed. There were 6433 CLL patients identified, and 2040 received infused therapy. Treated patients were categorized as receiving rituximab monotherapy (16%), rituximab plus chemotherapy (14%), and chemotherapy alone (70%) based on the initial 60 days after infusion. Rituximab plus chemotherapy compared with chemotherapy alone was associated with a 25% lower risk of overall mortality (95% confidence interval, 9%-38%). Restricting to patients age 70 years and older did not change the risk reduction for rituximab plus chemotherapy. Hematologic interventions were more common with rituximab plus chemotherapy compared with chemotherapy alone, but there was no difference in all-cause hospitalizations. These analyses, based on observational data, suggest that the benefits of initial therapy with rituximab in a heterogeneous group of older CLL patients are comparable with those demonstrated in younger patients. © 2011 by The American Society of Hematology.


Block G.A.,Denver Nephrologists PC | Kilpatrick R.D.,Amgen | Lowe K.A.,Amgen | Wang W.,Outcomes Insights Inc. | Danese M.D.,Outcomes Insights Inc.
Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology | Year: 2013

Background and objectives Parathyroid hormone, calcium, and phosphate have been independently associated with cardiovascular event risk. Because these parameters may be on the same causal pathway and have been proposed as quality measures, an integrated approach to estimating event risks is needed. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Prevalent dialysis patients were followed from August 31, 2005 to December 31, 2006. A two-stage modeling approach was used. First, the 16-month probabilities of death and composite end point of death or cardiovascular hospitalization were estimated and adjusted for potential confounders. Second, patients were categorized into 1 of 36 possible phenotypes using average parathyroid hormone, calcium, and phosphate values over a 4-month baseline period. Associations among phenotypes and outcomes were estimated and adjusted for the underlying event risk estimated from the first model stage. ResultsOf 26, 221 patients, 98.5% of patients were in 22 groupswith at least 100 patients and 20%of patients were in the reference group defined using guideline-based reference ranges for parathyroid hormone, calcium, and phosphate. Within the 22 most common phenotypes, 20% of patients were in groups with significantly (P, 0.05) higher risk of death and 54% of patients were in groups with significantly higher risk of the composite end point relative to the in-target reference group. Increased risks ranged from 15% to 47% for death and from 8% to 55% for the composite. More than 40% of all patients were in the three largest groups with elevated composite end point risk (high parathyroid hormone, target calcium, and high phosphate; target high parathyroid hormone, target calcium, and high phosphate; and target high parathyroid hormone, target calcium, and target phosphate). Conclusion After adjusting for baseline risk, phenotypes defined by categories of parathyroid hormone, calcium, and phosphate identify patients at higher risk of death and cardiovascular hospitalization. Identifying common high-risk phenotypes may inform clinical interventions and policies related to quality of care. © 2013 by the American Society of Nephrology.


Danese M.D.,Outcomes Insights Inc. | O'Malley C.,Amgen Inc. | Lindquist K.,Outcomes Insights Inc. | Gleeson M.,Outcomes Insights Inc. | And 2 more authors.
Annals of Oncology | Year: 2012

Background: Longitudinal analyses of comorbid conditions in women with breast cancer are few. Methods: Using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare data, we included 51 950 women aged ≥66 years with in situ and stage I to IV breast cancer diagnosed in 1998-2002. We identified the prevalence and incidence of 34 comorbid conditions in these women, as well as in a matched cohort without cancer whose rates were standardized to the age and race/ethnicity distribution of the cancer patients. We also estimated rates of office encounters and diagnostic or testing procedures during the 12 months before diagnosis. Results: The prevalence of most conditions at diagnosis was comparable among breast cancer and noncancer patients. New conditions after diagnosis were more common in breast cancer patients, and the incidence rates increased with higher stage at diagnosis. Before diagnosis, women presenting with stage IV disease had 41% [95% confidence interval (CI) 38% to 43%] fewer physician encounters and 34% (95% CI 24% to 31%) fewer unique diagnostic tests than women diagnosed with carcinoma in situ. Conclusions: Many comorbid conditions are identified as a consequence of the breast cancer diagnosis. There appears to be an important contribution from a lack of interaction with the health care system before diagnosis. © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology.


Griffiths R.,Outcomes Insights Inc. | Griffiths R.,Johns Hopkins University | Gleeson M.,Outcomes Insights Inc. | Knopf K.,California Pacific Medical Center | Danese M.,Outcomes Insights Inc.
BMC Cancer | Year: 2010

Background: Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) comprises 31% of lymphomas in the United States. Although it is an aggressive type of lymphoma, 40% to 50% of patients are cured with treatment. The study objectives were to identify patient factors associated with treatment and survival in DLBCL.Methods: Using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registry data linked to Medicare claims, we identified 7,048 patients diagnosed with DLBCL between January 1, 2001 and December 31, 2005. Patients were followed from diagnosis until the end of their claims history (maximum December 31, 2007) or death. Medicare claims were used to characterize the first infused chemo-immunotherapy (C-I therapy) regimen and to identify radiation. Multivariate analyses were performed to identify patient demographic, socioeconomic, and clinical factors associated with treatment and with survival. Outcomes variables in the survival analysis were all-cause mortality, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) mortality, and other/unknown cause mortality.Results: Overall, 84% (n = 5,887) received C-I therapy or radiation treatment during the observation period: both, 26%; C-I therapy alone, 53%; and radiation alone, 5%. Median age at diagnosis was 77 years, 54% were female, 88% were white, and 43% had Stage III or IV disease at diagnosis. The median time to first treatment was 42 days, and 92% of these patients had received their first treatment by day 180 following diagnosis. In multivariate analysis, the treatment rate was significantly lower among patients ≥ 80 years old, blacks versus whites, those living in a census tract with ≥ 12% poverty, and extra-nodal disease. Blacks had a lower treatment rate overall (Hazard Ratio [HR] 0.77; P < 0.001), and were less likely to receive treatment within 180 days of diagnosis (Odds Ratio [OR] 0.63; P = 0.002) than whites. In multivariate survival analysis, black race was associated with higher all-cause mortality (HR 1.24; P = 0.01) and other/unknown cause mortality (HR 1.35; P = 0.01), but not mortality due to NHL (HR 1.16; P = 0.19).Conclusions: In elderly patients diagnosed with DLBCL, there are large differences in treatment access and survival between blacks and whites. © 2010 Griffiths et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Griffiths R.,Outcomes Insights Inc. | Griffiths R.,Johns Hopkins University | Mikhael J.,Mayo Clinic Arizona | Gleeson M.,Outcomes Insights Inc. | And 2 more authors.
Blood | Year: 2011

Clinical trials have demonstrated that rituximab improves overall survival in non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), except in mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). We used Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER)-Medicare data to compare survival in older MCL patients who began chemotherapy with or without rituximab within 180 days of diagnosis. Patients were followed from diagnosis (January 1999 to December 2005) until death or the end of observation (December 2007). Medicare administrative and claims data were used to identify the date and cause of death and the immunochemotherapy regimen. Of 638 patients, the mean age at diagnosis was 75 years, 75% had stage III/IV disease, 67% had extranodal involvement, and 64% received rituximab. The average length of first-line treatment was 21 weeks, with no difference between the 2 groups (P ∇ .76). Median survival was 27 months for chemotherapy alone, compared with 37 months for chemotherapy plus rituximab (P < .001). In multivariate analysis of 2-year survival, rituximab plus chemotherapy was associated with lower all-cause (hazard ratio [HR] 0.58; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.41-0.82; P < .01), and cancer-specific (HR 0.56; 95% CI 0.37- 0.84; P < .01) mortality. Results were similar when using the entire observation period, propensity score analysis, and limiting chemotherapy to CHOP/CHOP-like. We conclude that first-line chemotherapy including rituximab is associated with significantly improved survival in older patients diagnosed with MCL. © 2011 by The American Society of Hematology.


Griffiths R.I.,Outcomes Insights Inc. | Griffiths R.I.,Johns Hopkins University | Gleeson M.L.,Outcomes Insights Inc. | Danese M.D.,Outcomes Insights Inc. | O'Hagan A.,University of Sheffield
Value in Health | Year: 2012

Objectives: To assess the accuracy and precision of inverse probability weighted (IPW) least squares regression analysis for censored cost data. Methods: By using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare, we identified 1500 breast cancer patients who died and had complete cost information within the database. Patients were followed for up to 48 months (partitions) after diagnosis, and their actual total cost was calculated in each partition. We then simulated patterns of administrative and dropout censoring and also added censoring to patients receiving chemotherapy to simulate comparing a newer to older intervention. For each censoring simulation, we performed 1000 IPW regression analyses (bootstrap, sampling with replacement), calculated the average value of each coefficient in each partition, and summed the coefficients for each regression parameter to obtain the cumulative values from 1 to 48 months. Results: The cumulative, 48-month, average cost was $67,796 (95% confidence interval [CI] $58,454-$78,291) with no censoring, $66,313 (95% CI $54,975-$80,074) with administrative censoring, and $66,765 (95% CI $54,510-$81, 843) with administrative plus dropout censoring. In multivariate analysis, chemotherapy was associated with increased cost of $25,325 (95% CI $17,549-$32,827) compared with $28,937 (95% CI $20,510-$37,088) with administrative censoring and $29,593 ($20,564-$39,399) with administrative plus dropout censoring. Adding censoring to the chemotherapy group resulted in less accurate IPW estimates. This was ameliorated, however, by applying IPW within treatment groups. Conclusion: IPW is a consistent estimator of population mean costs if the weight is correctly specified. If the censoring distribution depends on some covariates, a model that accommodates this dependency must be correctly specified in IPW to obtain accurate estimates. © 2012 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR).


Lindquist K.J.,Outcomes Insights Inc.
Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology / ESMO | Year: 2011

Mortality in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) is high, and patients are likely to require hospitalizations, emergency department (ED) visits, and transfusions. The relationships between these events and the MDS complications of anemia, neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia are not well understood. A total of 1864 patients registered in the United States' Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) program and aged ≥ 66 years old when diagnosed with MDS in 2001 or 2002 were included. Medicare claims were used to identify MDS complications and utilization (hospitalizations, ED visits, and transfusions) until death or the end of 2005. Mortality was based on SEER data. Kaplan-Meier incidence rates were estimated and multivariable Cox models were used to study the association between complications and outcomes. The 3-year incidence of anemia, neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia was 81%, 25%, and 41%, and the incidence of hospitalization, ED visit, and transfusion was 62%, 42%, and 45%, respectively. Median survival time was 22 months. Cytopenia complications were significantly associated with each of these outcomes. All types of cytopenia are common among patients with MDS and are risk factors for high rates of health care utilization and mortality. Management of the complications of MDS may improve patient outcomes.

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