Belo Horizonte, Brazil
Belo Horizonte, Brazil

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Da Silva M.A.G.,Federal University of Tocantins | Albernaz R.M.,Ouro Fino Saude Animal | Martins C.B.,University Federal Do Espiirito Santo
Semina:Ciencias Agrarias | Year: 2016

The purpose of the present investigation was to examine the effects of unilateral and bilateral jugular vein occlusion via temporary surgical ligature on arterial blood gases in horses during treadmill exercise. Six horses performed three exercise tests (ETs). ET1, considered to be the control, was performed in horses without jugular occlusion. ET2 and ET3 were performed in horses with unilateral and bilateral occlusion via temporary surgical ligature of the jugular veins, respectively. The partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) and partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2) were determined. The PO2 showed decreased values during ET2 and ET3, suggesting that horses presenting acute jugular thrombophlebitis may have airflow limitations when exercising.


It's known for long time hat the human omento can promote angiogenic activity in adjacent structures in which it is applied. In veterinary medicine, there is little research with greater omentum flap as angiogenic and immunogenic inductor, however, their adhesion properties and drainage are well known. This study wondered whether if the greater omentum can be used as angiogenic inductor in bone fractures, and therefore increase osteogenenic rates and decreasing bone infection. Initially it was designed an experimental study which aimed to obtain a greater omentum pedicle flap and conduct it so long as possible through a subcutaneous defect in order to reach long bones (femur, tibia, humerus, radius/ulna). For the experiment it was used 30 dogs cadavers of all breeds, except condrosdistrophics breeds. The results were conclusive and confirmed the possibility of reaching the omentum flap for long bones. All the animals had reached the distal half of the evaluated bones. Results were satisfactorily accomplished and in 100% of the cases the flap reached the distal half of the evaluated bones. The averages of the different flap length were: 30.87cm when double layer was used; 54.37cm in simple layer; and 92.7cm when the flap was built in L. The maximum length of the omentum has secured the possibility of reaching the distal metaphases of all the bones studied. The average length exceeded 29.87cm to femur, 20.73cm to tibia/fibula, 25.13cm to humerus, and 16.27cm to radius/ulna. The flap length variety statistically evaluated showed moderate positive correlation on the presented individuals. It was concluded that the omentum pedicle flap can be taken through the subcutaneous defect until the distal metaphase of the long bones of dogs cadavers without tension. Animals with high corporal weight have the biggest L flap length.


Pugliesi G.,University of Sao Paulo | Santos F.B.,University of Sao Paulo | Lopes E.,University of Sao Paulo | Nogueira E.,Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation | And 2 more authors.
Theriogenology | Year: 2016

We aimed to evaluate the effects and the interaction of size of the preovulatory follicle (POF) and long-acting progesterone (P4) supplementation after timed-AI on CL function and pregnancy success in beef cows. In experiment 1, ovulations of beef cows were synchronized starting on Day -10, and cows were split to receive sodium cloprostenol (large follicle group; LF; n = 31) or nothing (small follicle group; SF; n = 35). Ovulations were induced on Day 0, and cows were inseminated. Ovulated cows were assigned to receive placebo (LF/control group, n = 14; and SF/control group, n = 9) or 150 mg of long-acting P4 on Day 4.5 (LF/P4 group, n = 13; and SF/P4 group, n = 12). Diameter of POF, blood flow in POF wall, ovulation rate, and size and vascularization of CL were greater (P < 0.05) in LF group. In experiments 2 (unknown cyclic status) and 4 (noncycling), ovulations were synchronized, and beef cows received placebo or 150 mg of long-acting P4 on Day 4 after timed-artificial insemination. In experiment 2, pregnancy/AI (P/AI) did not differ (P > 0.1) between P4-treated (53.2%; 209/393) and control cows (56.2%; 219/390), but P/AI was greater in cows with a CL < 0.9 cm2 on Day 4 that were P4-treated (57.9%, 22/38) versus placebo-treated (40.4%, 21/52; P < 0.05). In Experiment 4, P/AI was greater (P < 0.05) in P4-treated cows (55.6%, 105/189 vs. 46.0%, 86/187). In Experiment 3, cyclic-suckled beef cows were treated as described in Experiment 1 to generate animals with small (SF; n = 111) or large POF (LF; n = 109), and subdivided to receive placebo or P4 on Day 4. POF size, ovulation rate, CL area, and P/AI were greater (P < 0.007) in the LF group. Pregnancy/AI in ovulated cows were lower (P = 0.05) in the SF/control group (41.5%, 17/41) compared to LF/control group (62%, 31/50) and were similar for the SF/P4 group (55.6%, 25/45) and LF/P4 group (57%, 28/49) compared to others. In summary, smaller and less vascularized POF results in less functional CL and reduces ovulatory rate and P/AI in cyclic beef cows; the long-acting P4 injection on Day 4 after timed-artificial insemination may attenuate the negative effects of small POF/CL; and postovulatory P4 supplementation improved fertility in anestrous beef cattle. © 2016 Elsevier Inc.


Sales J.N.S.,University of Sao Paulo | Sales J.N.S.,Federal University of Paraiba | Carvalho J.B.P.,Vale do Paraiba Regional Center | Crepaldi G.A.,Ouro Fino Saude Animal | And 6 more authors.
Theriogenology | Year: 2012

The effects of estradiol benzoate (EB) and estradiol cypionate (EC) on induction of ovulation after a synchronized LH surge and on fertility of Bos indicus females submitted to timed AI (TAI) were evaluated. In Experiment 1, ovariectomized Nelore heifers were used to evaluate the effect of EB (n = 5) and EC (n = 5) on the circulating LH profile. The LH surge timing (19.6 and 50.5 h; P = 0.001), magnitude (20.5 and 9.4 ng/mL; P = 0.005), duration (8.6 and 16.5 h; P = 0.001), and area under the LH curve (158.6 and 339.4 ng/mL; P = 0.01) differed between the EB and EC treatments, respectively. In Experiment 2 (follicular responses; n = 60) and 3 (pregnancy per AI; P/AI; n = 953) suckled Bos indicus beef cows submitted to an estradiol/progesterone-based synchronization protocol were assigned to receive one of two treatments to induce synchronized ovulation: 1 mg of EB im 24 h after progesterone (P4) device removal or 1 mg of EC im at P4 device removal. There was no difference (P > 0.05) between EB and EC treatments on follicular responses (maximum diameter of the ovulatory follicle, 13.1 vs. 13.9 mm; interval from progesterone device removal to ovulation, 70.2 vs. 68.5 h; and ovulation rate, 77.8 vs. 82.8%, respectively). In addition, P/AI was similar (P < 0.22) between the cows treated with EB (57.5%; 277/482) and EC (61.8%; 291/471). In conclusion, despite pharmacologic differences, both esters of estradiol administered either at P4 device removal (EC) or 24 h later (EB) were effective in inducing an LH surge which resulted in synchronized ovulations and similar P/AI in suckled Bos indicus beef cows submitted to TAI. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.


Soares J.G.,University of Sao Paulo | de Carvalho N.A.T.,Unidade de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento | de Souza D.C.,CATI | Maio J.R.G.,Ouro Fino Saude Animal | And 3 more authors.
Buffalo Bulletin | Year: 2013

The present study evaluated the hypothesis that elevated progesterone during the expected multiple ovulations could improve the embryo recovery rate in superovulated buffalo. Buffalo donors were randomly assigned into 2 groups in a cross over experimental design: Control (C-G; n=8) and progesterone treatment groups (P4-G; n=8) during the periovulatory period. Follicular wave emergence was synchronized with an intravaginal progesterone (P4) device and an injection of 2 mg i.m. of estradiol benzoate at random stage of the estrous cycle (Day 0; D0 AM). From D4 AM, all buffaloes received 200 mg i.m. of FSH twice-daily, in 8 applications of decreasing doses. A dose of PGF2α (0.53 mg; i.m.) was given on D6 PM and D7 AM. The intravaginal P4 device was removed on D7 PM from the C-G and on D10 PM from the P4-G. On D8 PM, all buffaloes received 25 mg i.m. of pLH. Artificial inseminations (AIs) were carried out 12 and 24 h after the pLH treatment. The ova/embryos were collected nonsurgically 6 days after the second AI (D14 PM). Ovarian ultrasound examinations were performed on D0, D8 and on D14. The variables were analyzed by GLIMMIX procedure of SAS®. On Day 8, similar number of follicles ≥ 8 mm was verified in both groups (P4-G=12.1±3.2 vs. C-G=11.0±2.7; P=0.68). However, no structures (ova or embryos) were recovered from superovulated buffaloes treated with P4 during the periovulatory period (P4-G=0.0±0.0) compared to control group (C-G=1.9±0.7; P=0.03). Consequently, no transferable (0.0±0.0 vs. 1.6±0.7; P=0.04) and freezable embryos (0.0±0.0 vs. 1.6±0.7; P=0.04) were verified in buffaloes treated with P4-G (P4-G vs. C-G, respectively). Moreover, buffaloes from P4-G had a lower ovulation rate (13.5±4.9 vs. 71.5±16.1%; P=0.002) and a lower number of CLs on D14 (1.1±0.3 vs. 8.0±2.8; P=0.04) than those of C-G. Also, the number of follicles ≥ 8mm on the flushing day (D14 PM) increased in P4-G compared to C-G (10.5±3.0 vs. 3.6±0.9; P=0.11). Results indicate that treatment with progesterone during the periovulatory period was not effective to increase embryo production in superovulated buffaloes.


Soares J.G.,University of Sao Paulo | de Carvalho N.A.T.,Unidade de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento Polo Regional do Vale do Ribeira APTA | Martins Junior B.,Unidade de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento Polo Regional do Vale do Ribeira APTA | de Souza D.C.,CATI | And 4 more authors.
Buffalo Bulletin | Year: 2013

The low embryo recovery rate reported in buffaloes may be related to the failure of oocytes to enter the oviduct after superstimulation of follicular growth. We hypothesized that the use of PGF2α during the periovulatory period stimulates the contractile activity of tissue tubal smooth muscle, allowing portions of the oviduct fimbriae to be activated to capture the oocytes, improving the number of embryos recovered from superovulated buffaloes. Buffalo donors were randomly assigned into 2 groups in a cross over experimental design; control group without PGF2α injection (C-G; n=22) and PGF2α group (PGF-G; n=22) with PGF2α injection. Follicular wave emergence was synchronized with an intravaginal progesterone (P4) device and an injection of 2 mg i.m. of estradiol benzoate at random stage of the estrous cycle (Day 0; D0 AM). From D4, all buffaloes received 200 mg i.m of FSH twice-daily, in 8 applications of decreasing doses. A dose of PGF2α (0.53 mg; i.m.) was given on D6 PM and D7 AM, and the P4 device was removed on D7 PM. On D8 PM, 20μg of GnRH were given. Inseminations were done 12 and 24 h after the GnRH treatment. Buffaloes from PGF-G received four extra doses of PGF2α (0.53 mg, i.m.) from D8 PM to D10 AM 12 h apart. The ova/embryos were collected nonsurgically 6 days later (D14). The variables were analyzed by GLIMMIX procedure of SAS®. The treatments resulted in a similar number of follicles ≥8 mm on Day 8 (PGF-G=18.6±3.0 vs. C-G=17.1±2.0; P=0.80). A total number of ova and embryos recovered was greater in superovulated buffaloes treated with PGF2α during the periovulatory period (PGF-G=3.5±0.6) compared to control group (C-G=2.3±0.5; P=0.02). Also, an increased number of transferable embryos was verified in treated buffaloes (PGFG= 2.7±0.6 vs. C-G=1.8±0.5; P=0.05). Furthermore, the number of freezable embryos tended to increase in PGF-G (PGF-G=2.6±0.6 vs. C-G=1.8±0.5; P=0.08). However, no differences were observed in the number of degenerated embryos between the two groups (PGF-G=0.3±0.1 vs. CG= 0.4±0.1; P=0.61). Results indicate that the administration of PGF2α during the periovulatory period was effective to increase the number of embryos recovered from superovulated buffaloes.


Sousa D.O.,University of Sao Paulo | Mesquita B.S.,Ouro Fino Saude Animal | Diniz-Magalhaes J.,University of Sao Paulo | Bueno I.C.,University of Sao Paulo | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2014

Fiber digestibility is an important factor regulating DMI in ruminants. Additionally, the ensiling process can also affect digestibility and chemical composition of the forage. The objective of this study was to investigate effects of sugarcane NDF digestibility (NDFD) and conservation method on intake, rumen kinetics, and the ruminal ecosystem of steers. Eight ruminally cannulated Nellore steers (275 ± 22 kg BW) were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Two sugarcane genotypes divergent for stalk NDFD were used: IAC86- 2480 with high NDFD and SP91-1049 with low NDFD. Experimental diets were formulated with 40% sugarcane, either freshly cut or as silage, and 60% concentrate on a DM basis. Each experimental period lasted for 14 d, with the last 4 d used for determination of intake, ruminal evacuation, and ruminal fluid collection. The effect of fiber digestibility on DM and NDF intake was dependent on the forage conservation method (P = 0.01). High NDFD increased (P < 0.01) DMI only when sugarcane was offered as silage, having no effect (P = 0.41) on DMI when offered as freshly cut. Conservation method had no effect on total ruminal mass, with only a tendency (P < 0.10) for greater NDF and indigestible NDF ruminal mass in steers fed the low-NDFD genotype. The NDF turnover and passage rates were greater (P < 0.05) for the genotype with high NDFD but only when offered as silage. Liquid turnover rate in the rumen was greater (P = 0.02) for diets containing silage, with no effect of genotype (P = 0.87). There was no effect of NDFD genotype on ruminal pH (P = 0.77); however, diets containing sugarcane as silage increased (P < 0.01) ruminal pH. Total concentration of short chain fatty acids (P = 0.05) and proportions of propionate (P = 0.01) were greater for diets containing fresh sugarcane. Diets with fresh sugarcane increased the ruminal population of Streptococcus bovis (P < 0.01) and Ruminococcus albus (P = 0.03). The relative population of R. albus was also greater (P = 0.04) for diets containing the sugarcane genotype with high NDFD. Feeding diets containing the sugarcane genotype with high NDFD increased Fibrobacter succinogenes population but only when sugarcane was fed as freshly cut (P = 0.02). Using sugarcane genotypes with high NDFD can increase intake and benefit fiber-degrading bacteria in the rumen. © 2014 American Society of Animal Science. All rights reserved.


Pugliesi G.,University of Sao Paulo | Oliveria M.L.,University of Sao Paulo | Scolari S.C.,University of Sao Paulo | Lopes E.,University of Sao Paulo | And 6 more authors.
Reproduction in Domestic Animals | Year: 2014

Contents: Strategic supplementation of P4 may be used to increase conception rates in cattle, but timing of supplementation in relation to ovulation, mass of supplementary P4 and formulation of the P4-containing supplement has not been determined for beef cattle. Effects of supplementation of long-acting progesterone (P4) on Days 2 or 3 post-ovulation on development, function and regression of corpus luteum (CL) were studied in beef cattle. Cows were synchronized with an oestradiol/P4-based protocol and treated with 150 or 300 mg of long-acting P4 on Day 2 or 3 post-ovulation (6-7 cows/group). Colour-doppler ultrasound scanning and blood sample collection were performed from Day 2-21.5. Plasma P4 concentrations were greater (p < 0.05) from Day 2.5-5.5 in the Day 2-treated groups and from Day 3.5-5.5 in the Day 3-treated cows than in the control group. CL area and blood flow during Day 2-8.5 did not differ (p > 0.05) among groups, suggesting no effect of P4 treatment on luteal development. The frequency of cows that began luteolysis before Day 15 was greater (p < 0.04) in cows treated with 300 mg than in the controls, but there were no differences between non-treated and 150 mg-treated cows. The interval from pre-treatment ovulation to functional and structural luteolysis was shorter (p < 0.01) in the combined P4-treated groups than in the control cows. In conclusion, was showed for the first time that long-acting P4 supplementation on Day 2 or 3 post-ovulation increases P4 concentrations for ≥3 day, has no effect on luteal development, but anticipates the beginning of luteolysis in beef cattle. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.


PubMed | Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation, Ouro Fino Saude Animal and University of Sao Paulo
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Theriogenology | Year: 2016

We aimed to evaluate the effects and the interaction of size of the preovulatory follicle (POF) and long-acting progesterone (P4) supplementation after timed-AI on CL function and pregnancy success in beef cows. In experiment 1, ovulations of beef cows were synchronized starting on Day -10, and cows were split to receive sodium cloprostenol (large follicle group; LF; n=31) or nothing (small follicle group; SF; n=35). Ovulations were induced on Day 0, and cows were inseminated. Ovulated cows were assigned to receive placebo (LF/control group, n=14; and SF/control group, n=9) or 150mg of long-acting P4 on Day 4.5 (LF/P4 group, n=13; and SF/P4 group, n=12). Diameter of POF, blood flow in POF wall, ovulation rate, and size and vascularization of CL were greater (P<0.05) in LF group. In experiments 2 (unknown cyclic status) and 4 (noncycling), ovulations were synchronized, and beef cows received placebo or 150mg of long-acting P4 on Day 4 after timed-artificial insemination. In experiment 2, pregnancy/AI (P/AI) did not differ (P>0.1) between P4-treated (53.2%; 209/393) and control cows (56.2%; 219/390), but P/AI was greater in cows with a CL<0.9cm(2) on Day 4 that were P4-treated (57.9%, 22/38) versus placebo-treated (40.4%, 21/52; P<0.05). In Experiment 4, P/AI was greater (P<0.05) in P4-treated cows (55.6%, 105/189 vs. 46.0%, 86/187). In Experiment 3, cyclic-suckled beef cows were treated as described in Experiment 1 to generate animals with small (SF; n=111) or large POF (LF; n=109), and subdivided to receive placebo or P4 on Day 4. POF size, ovulation rate, CL area, and P/AI were greater (P<0.007) in the LF group. Pregnancy/AI in ovulated cows were lower (P=0.05) in the SF/control group (41.5%, 17/41) compared to LF/control group (62%, 31/50) and were similar for the SF/P4 group (55.6%, 25/45) and LF/P4 group (57%, 28/49) compared to others. In summary, smaller and less vascularized POF results in less functional CL and reduces ovulatory rate and P/AI in cyclic beef cows; the long-acting P4 injection on Day 4 after timed-artificial insemination may attenuate the negative effects of small POF/CL; and postovulatory P4 supplementation improved fertility in anestrous beef cattle.


PubMed | Ouro Fino Saude Animal and University of Sao Paulo
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of animal science | Year: 2014

Fiber digestibility is an important factor regulating DMI in ruminants. Additionally, the ensiling process can also affect digestibility and chemical composition of the forage. The objective of this study was to investigate effects of sugarcane NDF digestibility (NDFD) and conservation method on intake, rumen kinetics, and the ruminal ecosystem of steers. Eight ruminally cannulated Nellore steers (27522 kg BW) were used in a replicated 44 Latin square design with a 22 factorial arrangement of treatments. Two sugarcane genotypes divergent for stalk NDFD were used: IAC86-2480 with high NDFD and SP91-1049 with low NDFD. Experimental diets were formulated with 40% sugarcane, either freshly cut or as silage, and 60% concentrate on a DM basis. Each experimental period lasted for 14 d, with the last 4 d used for determination of intake, ruminal evacuation, and ruminal fluid collection. The effect of fiber digestibility on DM and NDF intake was dependent on the forage conservation method (P=0.01). High NDFD increased (P<0.01) DMI only when sugarcane was offered as silage, having no effect (P=0.41) on DMI when offered as freshly cut. Conservation method had no effect on total ruminal mass, with only a tendency (P<0.10) for greater NDF and indigestible NDF ruminal mass in steers fed the low-NDFD genotype. The NDF turnover and passage rates were greater (P<0.05) for the genotype with high NDFD but only when offered as silage. Liquid turnover rate in the rumen was greater (P=0.02) for diets containing silage, with no effect of genotype (P=0.87). There was no effect of NDFD genotype on ruminal pH (P=0.77); however, diets containing sugarcane as silage increased (P<0.01) ruminal pH. Total concentration of short chain fatty acids (P=0.05) and proportions of propionate (P=0.01) were greater for diets containing fresh sugarcane. Diets with fresh sugarcane increased the ruminal population of Streptococcus bovis (P<0.01) and Ruminococcus albus (P=0.03). The relative population of R. albus was also greater (P=0.04) for diets containing the sugarcane genotype with high NDFD. Feeding diets containing the sugarcane genotype with high NDFD increased Fibrobacter succinogenes population but only when sugarcane was fed as freshly cut (P=0.02). Using sugarcane genotypes with high NDFD can increase intake and benefit fiber-degrading bacteria in the rumen.

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