Ouranos

Montréal, Canada
Montréal, Canada

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Mladjic B.,University of Quebec at Montréal | Sushama L.,University of Quebec at Montréal | Khaliq M.N.,Environment Canada | Laprise R.,University of Quebec at Montréal | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Climate | Year: 2011

Changes to the intensity and frequency of hydroclimatic extremes can have significant impacts on sectors associated with water resources, and therefore it is relevant to assess their vulnerabilities in a changing climate. This study focuses on the assessment of projected changes to selected return levels of 1-, 2-, 3-, 5-, 7- and 10-day annual (April-September) maximum precipitation amounts, over Canada, using an ensemble of five 30-yr integrations each for current reference (1961-90) and future (2040-71) periods performed with the Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM); the future simulations correspond to the A2 Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) scenario. Two methods, the regional frequency analysis (RFA), which operates at the scale of statistically homogenous units of predefined climatic regions, with the possibility of downscaling to gridcell level, and the individual gridbox analysis (GBA), are used in this study, with the time-slice stationarity assumption. Validation of model simulated 20-, 50- and 100-yr return levels of single- and multiday precipitation extremes against those observed for the 1961-90 period using both the RFA and GBA methods suggest an underestimation of extreme events by the CRCM over most of Canada. The CRCM projected changes, realized with the RFA method at regional scale, to selected return levels for the future (2041-70) period, in comparison to the reference (1961-90) period, suggest statistically significant increases in event magnitudes for 7 out of 10 studied climatic regions. Though the results of the RFA and GBA methods at gridcell level suggest positive changes to studied return levels for most parts of Canada, the results corresponding to the 20-yr return period for the two methods agree better, while the agreement abates with increasing return periods, that is, 50 and 100 yr. It is expected that the increase in return levels of short and longer duration precipitation extremes will have severe implications for various water resource-related development and management activities. © 2011 American Meteorological Society.


Grenier P.,University of Quebec at Montréal | De Elia R.,University of Quebec at Montréal | Chaumont D.,Ouranos
Journal of Climate | Year: 2015

The path toward a warmer global climate is not smooth, but, rather, is made up of a succession of positive and negative temperature trends, with cooling having more chance to occur the shorter the time scale considered. In this paper, estimates of the probabilities of short-term cooling (Pcool) during the period 2006-35 are performed for 5146 locations across Canada. Probabilities of cooling over durations from 5 to 25 yr come from an ensemble of 60 climate scenarios, based on three different methods using a gridded observational product and CMIP5 climate simulations. These methods treat interannual variability differently, and an analysis in hindcast mode suggests they are relatively reliable. Unsurprisingly, longer durations imply smaller Pcool values; in the case of annual temperatures, the interdecile range of Pcool values across Canada is, for example, ~2%-18% for 25 yr and ~40%-46% for 5 yr. Results vary slightly with the scenario design method, with similar geographical patterns emerging. With regards to seasonal influence, spring and winter are generally associated with higher Pcool values. Geographical Pcool patterns and their seasonality are explained in terms of the interannual variability over background trend ratio. This study emphasizes the importance of natural variability superimposed on anthropogenically forced long-term trends and the fact that regional and local short-term cooling trends are to be expected with nonnegligible probabilities. © 2015 American Meteorological Society.


Leduc M.,Concordia University at Montréal | Matthews H.D.,Concordia University at Montréal | De Elia R.,Ouranos
Journal of Climate | Year: 2015

Recent studies have shown that the transient climate response to cumulative carbon emissions (TCRE) of the global temperature can be well approximated by a constant value for cumulative emissions up to about 2 TtC. However, there has been little attention given in the literature to how the TCRE varies across the range of emissions rates represented by the current RCP emissions scenarios. The authors use an ensemble of simulations generated using the University of Victoria Earth System Climate Model to quantify how the temperature response to cumulative emissions varies as a function of both the total magnitude and the rate of CO2 emissions. This study shows that the 500-yr response to a pulse CO2 emission (1.81°C TtC-1) does not depend on the magnitude of cumulative emissions up to 3 TtC. The TCRE (1.66°C TtC-1), which relates to the short-term response, is relatively insensitive to constant-rate emissions up to 30 GtC yr-1. This experiment shows that the formal way of estimating the TCRE-that is, at the point of CO2 doubling in an idealized scenario with a 1% yr-1 increase of the atmospheric concentration-is a highly robust measure. The authors conclude that the TCRE provides a good estimate of the temperature response to CO2 emissions in RCP scenarios 2.6, 4.5, and 6, whereas a constant TCRE value significantly overestimates the temperature response to CO2 emissions in RCP8.5. © 2015 American Meteorological Society.


Houle D.,Direction de la Recherche Forestiere du Ministere des Ressources Naturelles et de la Faune du Quebec | Bouffard A.,Ouranos | Duchesne L.,Direction de la Recherche Forestiere du Ministere des Ressources Naturelles et de la Faune du Quebec | Logan T.,Ouranos | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Climate | Year: 2012

The impacts of climate change on future soil temperature Ts and soil moisture Ms of northern forests are uncertain. In this study, the authors first calibrated Ts and Ms models [Forest Soil Temperature Model (ForSTeM) and Forest HydrologyModel (ForHyM), respectively] using long-term observations of Ts andMs at different depths measured at three forest sites in eastern Canada. The two models were then used to project Ts andMs for the period 1971-2100 using historical and future climate scenarios generated by one regional and five global climate models. Results indicate good model performance by ForSTeM and ForHyM in predicting observed Ts and Ms values at various depths for the three sites. Projected annual-mean Ts at these sites increased between 1.1° and 1.9°C and between 1.9° and 3.3°C from the present 30-yr averages (1971-2000) to the periods 2040-69 and 2070-99, respectively. Increases as high as 5.0°C were projected at the black spruce site during the growing season (June) for the period 2070-99. Changes in annual-mean Ms were relatively small; however, seasonally Ms is projected to increase in April, because of earlier snowmelt, and to decrease during the growing season, mainly because of higher evapotranspiration rates. Soil moisture in the growing season could be reduced by 20%-40% for the period 2070-99 compared to the reference period. The projected warmer and drier soil conditions in the growing season could have significant impacts on forests growth and biogeochemical cycles. © 2012 American Meteorological Society.


He Y.,University of Victoria | Monahan A.H.,University of Victoria | Jones C.G.,University of Quebec at Montréal | Dai A.,U.S. National Center for Atmospheric Research | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres | Year: 2010

Knowledge of the probability distributions of surface wind speeds (SWS) is essential for surface flux estimation, wind power estimation, and wind risk assessments. The two-parameter Weibull distribution is the most widely used empirical distribution for SWS. This study considers the probability density function (PDF) of 3-hourly observations from 720 weather stations over North America for the period 1979-1999. The PDF of SWS is classified by season, time of day, and land surface type. The Weibull PDF is characterized by a particular relationship between the mean, standard deviation, and skewness. While the moments of the observed daytime SWS PDF are found to collapse around this Weibull relationship, the observed nighttime PDF has a broader range of values and is significantly more skewed than the Weibull PDF over rough surfaces. An idealized model shows that SWS skewness has a much greater rate of change with both the mean and standard deviation of surface buoyancy flux under conditions of stable stratification than that of unstable stratification. This result suggests that surface buoyancy flux plays an important role in generating diurnal variation of SWS PDF. Two global reanalyses products (ERA-40 and NCEP-NCAR) and three regional climate models (RCMs) (Rossby Centre Atmospheric Model version 3 (RCA3), limited area version of Global Environmental Multiscale Model (GEM-LAM), and Canadian Regional Climate Model, version 4 (CRCM4)) all have a less skewed nighttime PDF and a more narrow range of the normal wind speed during day and night. Among them, two of the RCMs capture the observed SWS differences across different land cover types, and only one of the RCMs produces the observed seasonal peak of SWS PDF. Copyright 2010 by the American Geophysical Union.


Leduc M.,Concordia University at Montréal | Damon Matthews H.,Concordia University at Montréal | De Elia R.,Ouranos
Nature Climate Change | Year: 2016

The Transient Climate Response to cumulative carbon Emissions (TCRE) measures the response of global temperatures to cumulative CO 2 emissions. Although the TCRE is a global quantity, climate impacts manifest predominantly in response to local climate changes. Here we quantify the link between CO2 emissions and regional temperature change, showing that regional temperatures also respond approximately linearly to cumulative CO2 emissions. Using an ensemble of twelve Earth system models, we present a novel application of pattern scaling to define the regional pattern of temperature change per emission of CO2. Ensemble mean regional TCRE values range from less than 1 °C per TtC for some ocean regions, to more than 5 °C per TtC in the Arctic, with a pattern of higher values over land and at high northern latitudes. We find also that high-latitude ocean regions deviate more strongly from linearity as compared to land and lower-latitude oceans. This suggests that ice-albedo and ocean circulation feedbacks are important contributors to the overall negative deviation from linearity of the global temperature response to high levels of cumulative emissions. The strong linearity of the regional climate response over most land regions provides a robust way to quantitatively link anthropogenic CO2 emissions to local-scale climate impacts. © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.


News Article | March 22, 2016
Site: motherboard.vice.com

In 2008, Canada eliminated the position of national science adviser, angering scientists who saw the office as a key point of contact between the government and the scientific community. Over the next eight years, Canada went to war on science by preventing researchers from talking to the press (in a word, “muzzling”), and cutting billions in funding for research. Along the way, Canada gained a reputation for being flagrantly anti-science. Now, Canada is looking to revive the role of the national science adviser, and undo some of the damage done during the Harper years, with a “chief science officer.” Whoever is chosen for the position, and when—staff of science minister Kirsty Duncan would neither confirm nor deny that they will be named with the release of the federal budget on Tuesday—they will have one hell of a job ahead of them. Although much of the role of the chief science officer appears undefined at the moment, one theme overarches the entire discussion: transparency. When Prime Minister Justin Trudeau appointed Duncan, he said that the chief science officer would be mandated to “ensure that government science is fully available to the public, that scientists are able to speak freely about their work, and that scientific analyses are considered when the government makes decisions.” The previous Canadian government’s dubious record on science is a big ship to turn around, and it’s been on the same, dirge-like course for nearly a decade. With that in mind, here are some badass scientists that we think would be perfect for the job. Watch more from Motherboard: Oil and Water Katie Gibbs knows how to get people fired up about transparency (resist the urge to fall asleep after reading that word), which is pretty damn impressive. In 2012, the Harper government’s campaign to muzzle scientists was in full swing, and Gibbs was one of the chief organizers behind a protest that ended up swelling into thousands of angry researchers marching on Parliament Hill. A scientist by training, and a staunch advocate of government transparency by trade, Gibbs hasn’t let up on her cage-rattling since that day four years ago. In the intervening years, she’s helped to run Evidence for Democracy, an advocacy group that sprung up in the wake of the protest. Bringing her outlook and history of campaigning for transparency into the government itself would be a big move. BRENDA PARLEE Canada Research Chair in Social Responses to Ecological Change, University of Alberta Parlee’s bread and butter is researching the impacts of climate change, but with a focus on aboriginal beliefs that is all too uncommon in Canadian science today. She and her team of students go out into the field to engage with indigenous communities about changes to their environment as a result of climate change—the declining populations of certain animals, for example. In 2013, she helped organize a permanent exhibit at the University of Alberta called “Elders as Scientists” to raise awareness about indigenous knowledge systems. Appointing Parlee would make aboriginal knowledge a part of the communication process between scientists, the government, and the public. Canada’s track record with our indigenous peoples has been pretty awful in nearly every regard for, well, ever, and including them and their knowledge into our science priorities would be a welcome gesture. Bourque was once a climatologist for Environment Canada, but these days he mostly specializes in handing out scientific knowledge suplexes. Who better to take on the role of bridging the gap between science, government, and the public? He’s served as the executive director of Ouranos, a Canadian climate change think tank, since 2013, so he knows how to run an organization. He’s also somewhat of a firebrand when it comes to keeping temperatures on an even keel, which is a plus, and doesn’t hesitate to lay out the scientific consensus about climate in no uncertain terms—even when faced by government ministers. Basically, he’s got the cred and isn’t afraid to flaunt it.


News Article | March 28, 2016
Site: motherboard.vice.com

Each year in North America, usually beginning sometime in mid-February, winter begins to unfurl its grip and allow spring to breathe itself into the gaps. In the maple syrup-producing pockets of the continent, sunrise moves the thermostat above freezing and sunset swings the pendulum the other way towards frozen nights. Those days are known as sugaring days—the period of four to six weeks when producers gather sap and turn it into the maple syrup that will top our pancakes, infuse our bacon, and sweeten our teas. In recent years, maple products have undergone a mini-boom, due to our desire for alternatives to high fructose corn syrup; marketing creativity (instead of coconut water, how about some nice maple “water”); and an expanding Asian market. At the same time, however, sugaring days, and the syrup they produce, have grown more volatile due to weather variations linked to climate change. Freakishly warm winters like this one—in March, NOAA announced that this winter was the warmest on record for the continental United States since record keeping began in in 1901—make it harder on the northeast’s maple syrup producers, or sugar makers, are they’re known colloquially. It’s a reference to the past when maple sap was boiled all the way down to sugar instead of syrup. “Most sugar makers are genuinely concerned,” said George Cook, a maple and farm safety specialist at the University of Vermont Farm Extension. Cook works with sugar makers in Vermont, the state that produces the most maple syrup in the United States, to bring science-based practices to improve their production. “They're obviously looking at what's happening globally and recognizing that if the trend of the northern part of North American continues so that it’s getting warmer, the range of the land that is best for the growth of sugar maple trees is going to move north." “If you don't have those freezing nights and thawing days for a period of for a period of four to six weeks or so the sap is not going to run," he said. “And if you don't get the weather you don't get the sap. We’re extremely dependent on the right weather.” Right now, the United States and Canada have the monopoly on global maple syrup production because they're the only place with a climate suitable to wide scale cultivation. The issue isn’t simply growing sugar maples—you can find them growing as far south as Tennessee—but getting the sap to run. “There are some boundaries to the zone of maple syrup production,” said Daniel Houle. Houle is a researcher for the ministry of forest wildlife and park in Quebec, and coordinator for the forest resources program in Ouranos a consortium of regional adaptation to climate change. “Up north the climate is too cold for the maple trees to live, and in the south the trees may grow well but you don't have the weather that would allow that you to collect the sap.” This is why the footprint for maple syrup production—as far south as Pennsylvania, north through the Eastern Canadian provinces, and west to about Michigan—is smaller than the footprint for maple trees. And, it’s a footprint that’s about to get smaller, Houle told Motherboard. “Places like Pennsylvania won’t be suitable for maple syrup,” he said. In other places, like the southern part of Québec, the sap will still flow, but the season will likely be shorter, and the frequencies where the weather is less suitable more likely. Overall, Houle’s research has found that due to climate change, maple syrup production could see a 15 percent decrease by 2050 and a 22 percent decrease by 2090. Cook says it’s too early in the season to know how producers fared this year. Producers further north and at higher elevations still have sap running, and the official numbers aren’t in yet. Plus, it's been an odd season. Some producers found themselves putting in taps as early as December. The sap started to run towards the end of January, such an early start that it smashed tapping records that had endured for more than a century. “As strange as this winter has been, so has the sugaring season," he said. The product itself has been different as well. Lighter syrups, the kind favored on pancakes and in drinks, are usually produced earlier in the season. Darker syrups, with a stronger maple flavor typically used in baking, are typically produced later in the season. This year's weather has moved the needle toward the darker syrups. “While some folks have been able to make a nice light product,” said Cook, “others have been plagued by a darker-than-average syrup because of the warm weather.” If it’s getting too warm in the south, why not just move production further north? “The potential for moving north exists,” said Houle, “but there are barriers. You already have another forest there. And the climate is warming much faster 10 to 20 times faster than a tree can migrate.” Producers can also tap trees earlier in the season, said Houle, but tapping them too early could invite bacteria or reduce the yield. "You have to do a kind of compromise," he said. Maple syrup producers are lucky that compromise is possible at all, however. “Crops along the tropical belts like cocoa and coffee depend on even temperatures throughout the year,” said Kristy Lewis, year climate security science manager at the UK’s Met Office. Those crops can’t move to higher or lower latitudes because that introduces seasonality, and they need consistent temperatures. They can only move higher up the mountain until there’s no more mountain to move to. “... It will be difficult to know where else you can grow them in the world if you can’t grow them in the tropics,” she said. We often think about climate change in terms of what it will do to the weather. If we think about its relationship to food at all, it’s in terms of quantity—will we have enough. Increasingly, the questions we should be asking ourselves is not just will we be able to eat, but what will we be able to eat.


News Article | August 30, 2016
Site: www.theenergycollective.com

By 2020, the state of Massachusetts is committed to reducing its greenhouse gas emissions at least 25 percent compared with 1990 levels, all while up to 25 percent of its electricity generation facilities are expected to go offline. Angling to shore up its energy resources without driving up emissions levels, the state recently passed a bill requiring Massachusetts to procure long-term contracts that tap 1,600 megawatts of offshore wind power and 1,200 megawatts of hydropower or other renewables by 2025. (One megawatt can power up to 1,000 homes.) Massachusetts Governor Charlie Baker, who signed the bill into law, argues that a significant infusion of Canadian hydropower will be needed to enable the state to meet its impending energy and climate deadlines. Aiming to equip decision-makers in the New England/Québec region with the knowledge they’ll need to evaluate this and other cross-border, low-carbon energy and climate policy options, the MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change and two Montréal-based research institutions — the business school Hautes Études en Commerce (HEC), and Ouranos, a climate-change think tank — launched a new collaboration on energy, economy, and climate policy analysis at a signing ceremony on Aug. 28 in Boston. Convened during the Conference of New England Governors and Eastern Canadian Premiers, the ceremony featured remarks by representatives of all three signatories, including MIT Vice President for Research Maria Zuber on behalf of the Joint Program; by Éric Martel, president and CEO of Hydro-Québec, a state-owned electricity supplier and one of the world’s leading producers of hydropower; and by Québec Premier Philippe Couillard. “New England, Québec, and the Eastern Provinces of Canada have strong ties through trade and an important opportunity to work and to contribute to a solution to climate change by providing clean energy at a reasonable cost to consumers,” said Zuber. “This research collaboration can help to provide a shared foundation for the development of sound energy strategies in New England, Québec, and beyond.” Martel announced Hydro-Québec’s intention to provide partial funding support for the research collaboration. “Hydro-Québec is proud to announce its participation in this research project,” said Martel. “At Hydro-Québec, we are convinced of the necessity of such studies which will help decision-makers to choose low-carbon energy policy options for the New England and Québec region. So what could be better than to bring together some of the top researchers in the field, those working at MIT, Ouranos, and HEC Montreal?” said Martel. “Hydro-Québec is happy to be part of such promising, forward-looking research.” Noting Québec’s aim to become more ambitious in tapping its renewable energy resources, including its vast hydropower capacity, Premier Couillard emphasized the need for evidence-based policymaking guided by science and independent analysis. “We want to … take this opportunity to become even more efficient in terms of dropping our emissions and mitigating and adapting North America to climate change,” he said. The primary goal of the initiative is to develop advanced technical analysis in support of energy, economic, and climate-related decision-making by public and private sector leaders in New England and Québec. Informed by that goal, the three parties will work together to develop modeling tools needed to examine the economic relationships between New England and Québec. These new tools will enable the researchers to perform integrated assessments of energy/economic/climate policy in Québec and New England, which will be needed to demonstrate how expanding hydropower in New England and other proposed policies to integrate low-carbon, renewable energy sources into the regional electricity system, will benefit Québec, individual New England states, and the region as a whole. The initiative also aims to model the energy, economic, and climate impacts of the Western Climate Initiative (WCI), a framework for developing carbon cap-and-trade systems among the California and several Canadian provinces. By modeling Québec — and potentially Ontario and other provinces and states, researchers could model energy and economic relationships among existing and prospective WCI members, enabling each to better understand the economic and environmental implications of participation in the WCI. Each party to the new research collaboration contributes unique expertise. The MIT Joint Program has substantial experience in developing global and regional energy-economic models that simulate the economywide effects of different policies and technologies; HEC Montréal provides significant expertise in the energy sector, with a focus on electricity markets and climate policy, and in-depth knowledge of Québec’s policies and energy system; and Ouranos contributes a strong capability to evaluate climate policy risks and opportunities. All three research groups are united in their quest to provide an evidence-based foundation for policy throughout the region that addresses climate change and promotes a clean energy future, which Zuber described as the “defining issue of our time.” “Climate change is a global problem, but one that will affect all of us, regionally and personally,” she observed. “I am full of optimism that by working together, we can create a future that we and our children and our grandchildren will want to live in.”


By 2020, the state of Massachusetts is committed to reducing its greenhouse gas emissions at least 25 percent compared with 1990 levels, all while up to 25 percent of its electricity generation facilities are expected to go offline. Angling to shore up its energy resources without driving up emissions levels, the state recently passed a bill requiring Massachusetts to procure long-term contracts that tap 1,600 megawatts of offshore wind power and 1,200 megawatts of hydropower or other renewables by 2025. (One megawatt can power up to 1,000 homes.) Massachusetts Governor Charlie Baker, who signed the bill into law, argues that a significant infusion of Canadian hydropower will be needed to enable the state to meet its impending energy and climate deadlines. Aiming to equip decision-makers in the New England/Québec region with the knowledge they’ll need to evaluate this and other cross-border, low-carbon energy and climate policy options, the MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change and two Montréal-based research institutions — the business school Hautes Études en Commerce (HEC), and Ouranos, a climate-change think tank — launched a new collaboration on energy, economy, and climate policy analysis at a signing ceremony on Aug. 28 in Boston. Convened during the Conference of New England Governors and Eastern Canadian Premiers, the ceremony featured remarks by representatives of all three signatories, including MIT Vice President for Research Maria Zuber on behalf of the Joint Program; by Éric Martel, president and CEO of Hydro-Québec, a state-owned electricity supplier and one of the world's leading producers of hydropower; and by Québec Premier Philippe Couillard. “New England, Québec, and the Eastern Provinces of Canada have strong ties through trade and an important opportunity to work and to contribute to a solution to climate change by providing clean energy at a reasonable cost to consumers,” said Zuber. “This research collaboration can help to provide a shared foundation for the development of sound energy strategies in New England, Québec, and beyond.” Martel announced Hydro-Québec’s intention to provide partial funding support for the research collaboration. “Hydro-Québec is proud to announce its participation in this research project,” said Martel. “At Hydro-Québec, we are convinced of the necessity of such studies which will help decision-makers to choose low-carbon energy policy options for the New England and Québec region. So what could be better than to bring together some of the top researchers in the field, those working at MIT, Ouranos, and HEC Montreal?” said Martel. “Hydro-Québec is happy to be part of such promising, forward-looking research.” Noting Québec’s aim to become more ambitious in tapping its renewable energy resources, including its vast hydropower capacity, Premier Couillard emphasized the need for evidence-based policymaking guided by science and independent analysis. “We want to ... take this opportunity to become even more efficient in terms of dropping our emissions and mitigating and adapting North America to climate change,” he said. The primary goal of the initiative is to develop advanced technical analysis in support of energy, economic, and climate-related decision-making by public and private sector leaders in New England and Québec. Informed by that goal, the three parties will work together to develop modeling tools needed to examine the economic relationships between New England and Québec. These new tools will enable the researchers to perform integrated assessments of energy/economic/climate policy in Québec and New England, which will be needed to demonstrate how expanding hydropower in New England and other proposed policies to integrate low-carbon, renewable energy sources into the regional electricity system, will benefit Québec, individual New England states, and the region as a whole. The initiative also aims to model the energy, economic, and climate impacts of the Western Climate Initiative (WCI), a framework for developing carbon cap-and-trade systems among the California and several Canadian provinces. By modeling Québec — and potentially Ontario and other provinces and states — researchers could model energy and economic relationships among existing and prospective WCI members, enabling each to better understand the economic and environmental implications of participation in the WCI. Each party to the new research collaboration contributes unique expertise. The MIT Joint Program has substantial experience in developing global and regional energy-economic models that simulate the economywide effects of different policies and technologies; HEC Montréal provides significant expertise in the energy sector, with a focus on electricity markets and climate policy, and in-depth knowledge of Québec’s policies and energy system; and Ouranos contributes a strong capability to evaluate climate policy risks and opportunities. All three research groups are united in their quest to provide an evidence-based foundation for policy throughout the region that addresses climate change and promotes a clean energy future, which Zuber described as the “defining issue of our time.” “Climate change is a global problem, but one that will affect all of us, regionally and personally,” she observed. “I am full of optimism that by working together, we can create a future that we and our children and our grandchildren will want to live in.”

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