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Brunet J.,University of Ottawa | Sabiston C.M.,University of Toronto | Gaudreau P.,Ottawa University
Health Psychology | Year: 2014

Objectives: In the current study, we (a) describe naturally occurring changes in self-presentation processes (i.e., impression motivation, impression construction) and moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) over a period of 6 months among women who were treated for breast cancer; (b) evaluate the associations of cancer-specific factors with self-presentation processes and MVPA; and (c) examine the within- and between-person associations of self-presentation processes with MVPA. Method: For this prospective longitudinal study, women (n = 128; Mage = 55.14 years) completed questionnaires posttreatment for breast cancer (Mtime since treatment = 3.96 months), as well as 3 and 6 months later. Results: Based on the findings of the multilevel analysis, self-presentation processes remained stable over time, whereas MVPA levels changed over time (Blinear = 6.11, SE = 2.44, Bquadratic=-3.41, SE = 1.23). Radiotherapy was related to impression motivation (B=-40, SE = .19) and impression construction (B = -45, SE = .15), and chemotherapy was related to impression motivation (B = .31, SE = .15). Impression motivation was associated with MVPA at the between-person level (γ01 = 5.72, SE = 1.22), and impression construction was associated with MVPA at the between- and within-person levels (γ01 = 3.45, SE = 1.49; γ10 = 3.67, SE = 1.66). Conclusions: This study provides insight into the patterns of self-presentation processes and MVPA during early cancer survivorship, as well as the associations between these constructs at the withinand between-person levels. Based on these findings, more research is needed to determine whether self-presentation processes should be conceptualized as state or trait characteristics or as having both components, and extend the self-presentation framework to incorporate additional explanatory variables as this might provide a more complete explanation of MVPA. © 2012 American Psychological Association. Source


Marcovitch L.,Ottawa University
Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition | Year: 2016

BACKGROUND:: The Pediatric Ulcerative Colitis Activity Index (PUCAI) is a non-invasive clinician-based index, which reflects disease severity in pediatric ulcerative colitis (UC) when no endoscopy is performed. Here we aimed to explore signs and symptoms important to children with UC and their caregivers as the first stage of developing a Patient Reported Outcome (PRO) measure for pediatric UC (i.e. the TUMMY-UC index) to supplement endoscopic assessment. METHODS:: Concept elicitation qualitative interviews were performed with children who have UC and their caregivers in 6 centers. Items were rank-ordered by the interviewees according to the frequency of endorsement and importance, graded on a 1–5 scale. RESULTS:: 46 children (age 12.5?±?3.3 years; range 7–18, 48% males; 83% with pancolitis; 24% with moderate-severe disease) and 33 caregivers were interviewed (i.e. 79 interviews). The following items were identified by the children, in decreasing order of weights: abdominal pain (importance*frequency weight 3.9), rectal bleeding (3.6), stool frequency (3.0), stool consistency (3.0), general well-being/fatigue (2.9), urgency (1.9), and nocturnal stools (1.6). Two other items were scored lower: lack of appetite (1.1) and weight loss (0.6). Children 13–18 years comprehended adult vocabulary, children 8–12 years comprehended simple vocabulary and younger children had poor understanding in completing the questions. CONCLUSIONS:: In this first stage of the TUMMY-UC development, items were generated and ranked by input from patients. These items are now being explored for optimal vocabulary and response options. The TUMMY-UC will supplement the PUCAI in clinical trial outcome assessment. © 2016 by European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition and North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Source


Mkandawire P.,Ottawa University
Maternal and Child Health Journal | Year: 2015

Objectives: This paper examines the gestational age at first antenatal care (ANC) visit and factors associated with timely initiation of ANC in Malawi in a context where maternal and child health services are generally provided for free. Methods: Lognormal survival models are applied to Demographic and Health Survey data from a nationally representative sample of women (n = 13,588) of child-bearing age. Results: The findings of this study show that less than 30 % of pregnant women initiate ANC within the World Health Organization recommended gestational timeframe of 16 weeks or earlier. The hazard analysis shows a gradient in the initiation of ANC by maternal education level, with least educated mothers most likely to delay their first ANC visit. However, after adjusting for variables capturing intimate partner violence in the multivariate models, the effect of maternal education attenuated and lost statistical significance. Other significant predictors of gestational age at first ANC include media exposure, perceived distance from health facility, age, and birth order. Conclusions for Practice: The findings of the study link domestic violence directly with the gestational age at which mothers initiate ANC, suggesting that gender-based violence may operate through delayed initiation of ANC to undermine maternal and child health outcomes. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source


Stockemer D.,Ottawa University | Calca P.,University of Lisbon
Crime, Law and Social Change | Year: 2013

This article ventures to be one of the first studies that examines the relationship between corruption and electoral turnout on the sub-national level. Taking Portugal, a southern European country with nationally relatively high levels of corruption and relatively low levels of turnout, as a case, we examine the relationship between the two concepts across Portugal's 304 out of 308 municipalities for the legislative elections in 2005 and 2009. Controlling for municipal level GDP per capita, unemployment, the percentage of senior citizens, and population density, as well as the closeness of the election and the district magnitude, we find corruption to be a rather strong mobilizing agent. Compared to "clean" municipalities, our results indicate that turnout is several percentage points higher in "very corrupt" municipalities. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source


Hallett W.L.H.,Ottawa University
Energy and Fuels | Year: 2010

Measurements of local gas and tar concentrations, temperatures, and properties of samples of bed solids are reported for wood combustion in an overfeed packed bed. A novel probe is introduced for the measurement of tar concentrations in situ, which collects tar samples on small filter elements. It is shown to give credible values of local tar concentrations at different locations in the bed. Particle sizes and properties are measured by analysis of samples from the bed materials taken after shut-down.Apreviously developed detailed numerical model of packed bed char combustion is extended by the addition of a one-step pyrolysis reaction and compared with experimental measurements. The model is shown to give good agreement with measured quantities using physically reasonable values of the pyrolysis reaction rate parameters. © 2010 American Chemical Society. Source

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