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Rockville, MD, United States

Cho J.,University of Florida | Seo J.,Gachon University | Lim C.H.,University of Florida | Yang L.,University of Florida | And 9 more authors.
Cell Death and Differentiation

Adenine nucleotide translocases (ANTs) transport ADP and ATP through mitochondrial inner membrane, thus playing an essential role for energy metabolism of eukaryotic cells. Mice have three ANT paralogs, Ant1 (Slc25a4), Ant2 (Slc25a5) and Ant4 (Slc25a31), which are expressed in a tissue-dependent manner. While knockout mice have been characterized with Ant1 and Ant4 genes, which resulted in exercise intolerance and male infertility, respectively, the role of the ubiquitously expressed Ant2 gene in animal development has not been fully demonstrated. Here, we generated Ant2 hypomorphic mice by targeted disruption of the gene, in which Ant2 expression is largely depleted. The mice showed apparently normal embryonic development except pale phenotype along with a reduced birth rate. However, postnatal growth was severely retarded with macrocytic anemia, B lymphocytopenia, lactic acidosis and bloated stomach, and died within 4 weeks. Ant2 depletion caused anemia in a cell-autonomous manner by maturation arrest of erythroid precursors with increased reactive oxygen species and premature deaths. B-lymphocyte development was similarly affected by Ant2 depletion, and splenocytes showed a reduction in maximal respiration capacity and cellular ATP levels as well as an increase in cell death accompanying mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening. In contrast, myeloid, megakaryocyte and T-lymphocyte lineages remained apparently intact. Erythroid and B-cell development may be particularly vulnerable to Ant2 depletion-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited. Source

Civillico E.F.,Otsuka Maryland Medicinal Laboratories

Voltage-sensitive dye imaging (VSDI) is the optical interrogation of transmembrane voltage using an exogenous membrane-bound probe. When bulk-applied to intact tissue, voltage-sensitive dyes allow the measurement at high temporal and spatial resolution of subthreshold population membrane potential dynamics in regions of interest of arbitrary size and shape. This is particularly useful in vivo for mapping of input patterns to surface brain structures in order to study neuronal integration at the population level. This chapter provides an introduction to the use of VSDI in vivo. The first half consists of a discussion of the mechanism of action of optical voltage probes and the resulting implications for the interpretation of VSDI data, and offers a perspective on useful future applications and improvements. The second half includes a detailed protocol for VSDI in the barrel cortex of the anesthetized mouse, followed by further notes on practical details of the method. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source

Subramanian P.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Deshpande M.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Locatelli-Hoops S.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Moghaddam-Taaheri S.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology

Purpose. Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is a multifunctional serpin. The purpose of this study is to identify PEDF protein forms and investigate their biological activities on tumor cell lines. Methods. Recombinant human PEDF proteins were purified by cation- and anion-exchange column chromatography. They were subjected to SDS-PAGE, IEF, deglycosylation, heparin affinity chromatography, and limited proteolysis. Cell viability, real-time electrical impedance of cells, and wound healing assays were performed using bladder and breast cancer cell lines, rat retinal R28, and human ARPE-19 cells. Results. Two PEDF protein peaks were identified after anion-exchange column chromatography: PEDF-1 eluting with lower ionic strength than PEDF-2. PEDF-1 had higher pI value and lower apparent molecular weight than PEDF-2. Both PEDF forms were glycosylated, bound to heparin, and had identical patterns by limited proteolysis. However, PEDF-2 emerged as being highly potent in lowering cell viability in all tumor cell lines tested, and in inhibiting tumor and ARPE-19 cell migration. In contrast, PEDF-1 minimally affected tumor cell viability and cell migration but protected R28 cells against death caused by serum starvation. Conclusion. Two distinct biochemical forms of PEDF varying in overall charge have distinct biological effects on tumor cell viability and migration. The existence of PEDF forms may explain the multifunctional modality of PEDF. © 2012 P. Subramanian et al. Source

Han J.,Sanford Burnham Institute for Medical Research | Han J.,University of Michigan | Murthy R.,University of Michigan | Wood B.,University of Michigan | And 7 more authors.

Aims/hypothesis: Although obesity is associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) in adipose tissue, it is not known how UPR signalling affects adipogenesis. To test whether signalling through protein kinase RNA-like ER kinase/eukaryotic initiation factor 2 alpha (PERK/eIF2α) or inositol-requiring enzyme 1 alpha/X-box binding protein 1 (IRE1α/XBP1) is required for adipogenesis, we studied the role of UPR signalling in adipocyte differentiation in vitro and in vivo in mice. Methods: The role of UPR signalling in adipogenesis was investigated using 3T3-L1 cells and primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) by activation or inhibition of PERK-mediated phosphorylation of the eIF2α- and IRE1α-mediated splicing of Xbp1 mRNA. Body weight change, fat mass composition and adipocyte number and size were measured in wild-type and genetically engineered mice fed a control or high-fat diet (HFD). Results: ER stress repressed adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells. Impaired eIF2α phosphorylation enhanced adipocyte differentiation in MEFs, as well as in mice. In contrast, increased eIF2α phosphorylation reduced adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells. Forced production of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) homologous protein (CHOP), a downstream target of eIF2α phosphorylation, inhibited adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. Mice with deletion of Chop (also known as Ddit3) (Chop -/-) gained more fat mass than wild-type mice on HFD. In addition, Chop deletion in genetically obese Lepr db/db mice increased body fat mass without altering adipocyte size. In contrast to the eIF2α-CHOP pathway, activation or deletion of Ire1a (also known as Ern1) did not alter adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells. Conclusions/interpretation: These results demonstrate that eIF2α-CHOP suppresses adipogenesis and limits expansion of fat mass in vivo in mice, rendering this pathway a potential therapeutic target. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Liu Y.,Otsuka Maryland Medicinal Laboratories | Shakur Y.,Otsuka Maryland Medicinal Laboratories | Kambayashi J.,Otsuka Maryland Medicinal Laboratories
Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology

Intermittent claudication (IC) is one of the most frequent forms of lower extremity peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and is most commonly caused by arterial atherosclerosis. Its clinical manifestation includes fatigue, discomfort, or pain occurring in limb muscles due to exercise-induced ischemia, thus limiting the ability of IC patients to walk and exercise. In addition to lifestyle changes (diet, exercise, and smoking cessation), pharmacological treatments are needed. Pathologically, atherosclerotic lesions cause a mismatch in oxygen supply and metabolic demand in the leg muscles during walking/exercise. This subjects the muscles to repeated ischemia and reperfusion injury that can alter structure and oxidative metabolism, resulting in insufficient utilization of oxygen supply. Despite extensive research efforts, cilostazol and pentoxifylline are the only drugs indicated for relieving the symptoms of IC, with cilostazol demonstrating significant improvement in walking distance and quality of life in these patients. Originally developed as a PDE3 inhibitor, cilostazol was later found to have several other pharmacological actions, and its success has been attributed to its multifactorial actions on platelets, endothelium, smooth muscle, and lipid profiles. Using cilostazol as an example, we discuss the rationales and pitfalls of targeting PDEs in IC, and potential strategies for the development of new and more effective pharmacological treatments. © 2011 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

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