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Mwanza, Tanzania

Gilyoma J.M.,Otorhinolaryngology unit | Gilyoma J.M.,Catholic University of Health and Allied Sciences | Hauli K.A.,Catholic University of Health and Allied Sciences | Chalya P.L.,Catholic University of Health and Allied Sciences
BMC Emergency Medicine | Year: 2014

Background: Cut throat injuries though rarely reported in literature pose a great therapeutic challenge because multiple vital structures are vulnerable to injuries in the small, confined unprotected area. A sudden increase in the number of cut throat patients in our centre in recent years prompted the authors to analyze this problem. This study was conducted in our local setting to describe the etiology, patterns and treatment outcome of these injuries.Methods: This was a combined retrospective and prospective study of cut throat injury patients who were managed at Bugando Medical Centre between February 2009 and January 2013. Statistical data analysis was done using SPSS software version 17.0.Results: A total of 98 patients with cut throat injuries were studied. Males outnumbered females by a ratio of 2.4: 1. The median age of patients was 26 years (range 8 to 78 years). Majority of patients (79.6%) had no employment and most of them (65.3%) came from rural community. Homicide was the commonest (55.1%) cause, followed by suicidal attempts (34.7%) and accidental (10.2%) injuries. Interpersonal conflict (24.4%) was the most common motivating factor for homicidal injury whereas psychiatric illness (16.2%) and road traffic accidents (9.2%) were the most frequent motivating factors of suicidal attempt and accidental injuries respectively. The majority of injuries were in Zone II accounting for 65.3% of cases and most of them had laryngeal (57.1%) injury. Surgical debridement, laryngeal/hypopharynx repair and tracheostomy were the most common surgical procedures performed in 93.9%, 73.5% and 70.4% of patients respectively. Postoperative complication rate was 57.1%, the commonest being surgical site infections in 28.1% of patients and it was significantly associated with late presentation and anatomical zones (P < 0.001). The overall median duration of hospitalization was 12 days. Patients who had postoperative complications stayed longer in the hospital and this was statistically significant (p = 0.011). Mortality rate was 11.2% and was significantly associated with co-morbidities, delayed presentation and presence of complications (p < 0.001). The follow up of patients was poor.Conclusions: Cut throat injuries are a major cause of morbidity and mortality among young adult males in our setting. Addressing the root causes of violence such as poverty, unemployment, and substance abuse will reduce the incidence of these injuries in our environment. © 2014 Gilyoma et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Chiaravalli S.,Pediatric Oncology Unit | Guzzo M.,Otorhinolaryngology unit | Bisogno G.,University of Padua | De Pasquale M.D.,Hematology Oncology | And 6 more authors.
Pediatric Blood and Cancer | Year: 2014

Background: Salivary gland carcinomas are extremely rare in pediatric age. We report the clinical features of a series of children/adolescents with salivary gland carcinomas prospectively registered in the Italian TREP (Rare Tumors in Pediatric Age) project. Procedures: Diagnostic/therapeutic guidelines were developed and shared among Italian pediatric oncology/surgical centers. Results: Seventeen patients were registered between 2000 and 2012, representing 19% of the cases expected to be seen based on epidemiological data. Tumors arose mainly in the parotid gland (14 cases). In most cases they were low-grade tumors (14 cases), often with a favorable clinical presentation, and low-stage disease. All patients underwent surgical resection, achieving histologically free margins in 9/17 cases. Thirteen of the 14 patients with parotid gland tumors had parotidectomy (10 total, 3 superficial), while one had a tumorectomy. Postoperative facial nerve lesions were reported in two cases. Adjuvant radiotherapy was given to 6 patients. The overall prognosis was good: only one patient with a huge high-grade tumor experienced disease progression and died of the disease. The other 16 patients were alive in first continuous remission 1-8 years after diagnosis. In 4/17 cases, the salivary gland carcinoma was a second tumor occurring 6-9 years after another primary cancer. Conclusions: This is the first reported prospective national cooperative series of pediatric salivary gland carcinoma patients. Compliance with the TREP recommendations was high. These tumors are rarely managed by pediatric oncologists/surgeons. A broader international cooperation and better networking with otolaryngologists and head-neck surgeons expert on adult salivary gland carcinomas would be advisable. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Sultan I.,King Hussein Cancer Center | Rodriguez-Galindo C.,Dana-Farber Cancer Institute | Al-Sharabati S.,Private Dental Clinic | Guzzo M.,Otorhinolaryngology unit | And 2 more authors.
Head and Neck | Year: 2011

Background. Salivary gland carcinomas are rare malignancies, particularly in young individuals in whom only scanty data are available from published studies. Methods. We searched the SEER database (1973-2006) for patients with a reported diagnosis of salivary gland carcinoma; children/adolescents (<20 years old) were compared with adults. Results. We identified 263 children/adolescents (58% girls) and 12,571 adults (43% women). The most common histology was mucoepidermoid carcinoma in both groups, but the percentages of other histologies were different. Children/adolescents had more favorable features with most tumors being localized, with no extension to adjacent tissues or lymphatic spread (76% vs 50% in adults, p <.001). Also most tumors were well differentiated or moderately differentiated (88% vs 49% in adults, p <.001). The 5-year overall survival for children/adolescents was 95% ± 1.5%, compared with 59% ± 0.5% for adults (p <.001). Conclusion. When compared with adults, salivary gland carcinomas in children/adolescents are less advanced, and have more favorable features and better outcome. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Granata R.,Head and Neck Cancer Medical Oncology Unit | Miceli R.,Unit of Clinical Epidemiology and trial Organization | Orlandi E.,Fondazione Istituto Nazionale Dei Tumori | Perrone F.,Molecular Pathology Laboratory | And 13 more authors.
Annals of Oncology | Year: 2012

Background: Tumor human papillomavirus (HPV) status strongly affects overall survival (OS) of oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) patients. Recently, three groups with different outcomes were identified based on HPV status, smoking history and tumor stage. Our objective was to validate this model using a single-institutional retrospective database. Patients and methods: Patients (n = 120) diagnosed with OPC at our institution, treated with concomitant cisplatin plus radiotherapy (RT) (n = 64), induction chemotherapy followed by concomitant chemoradiation (n = 39) or RT alone (n = 17), were stratified in three groups with respect to the risk of death (low 26, intermediate 46 and high 49 patients) according to tumor p16 expression as surrogate of HPV status, pack-years of tobacco smoking and nodal/tumor stage. Group-stratified Kaplan-Meier OS curves were estimated and compared using the log-rank test. Results: The 2-year OS estimates were 100%, 86% and 70%, respectively. The difference between the survival curves was statistically significant (P = 0.009). The Harrell's concordance index was 0.70. The calibration plot showed a good concordance between our results and those observed in the original study. Conclusions: This study validates the risk grouping previously identified. Risk-driven clinical decision making and trial designs will help in better defining the most appropriate treatment in OPC patients. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved.

Giordano D.,Center for Clinical and Basic Research | Valcavi R.,Center for Clinical and Basic Research | Thompson G.B.,Rochester College | Pedroni C.,Center for Clinical and Basic Research | And 3 more authors.
Thyroid | Year: 2012

Background: Prophylactic central neck dissection (CND) has been proposed in the treatment of patients affected by papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) with clinically negative neck lymph nodes. The procedure allows pathologic staging of lymph nodes of the central compartment and treatment of the micrometastases. Nevertheless, the morbidity that its routine use adds to the total thyroidectomy must be taken into account. The aim of this study was to characterize the morbidity that CND adds to the total thyroidectomy. Methods: This was a retrospective study of 1087 patients with PTC and clinically negative neck lymph nodes. Patients were divided into three study groups: Group A, total thyroidectomy; Group B, total thyroidectomy and ipsilateral CND; Group C, total thyroidectomy and bilateral CND. Primary endpoints of the study were evaluated by comparing the rates of transient and permanent recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) injury and hypoparathyroidism in the three study groups. Results: Analysis of data showed no significant differences in the rate of transient (Group A: 3.6%, Group B: 3.9%, and Group C: 5.5%; p=0.404) and permanent (Group A: 1%, Group B: 0.5%, and Group C: 2.3%; p=0.099) RLN injury between the three study groups. Both ipsilateral CND and bilateral CND were associated with a higher rate of transient hypoparathyroidism (Group: A 27.7%, Group B: 36.1%, and Group C: 51.9%; p=0.014; odds ratio [OR]: 1.477; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.091-2.001; p<0.001; OR: 2.827; 95% CI: 2.065-3.870, respectively). Bilateral CND had a higher rate of permanent hypoparathyroidism (Group A: 6.3%, Group B: 7%, and Group C: 16.2%; p<0.001; OR: 2.860; 95% CI: 1.725-4.743). Conclusions: The increased rates of transient and permanent hypoparathyroidism in our series suggest a critical review of indications for the routine use of prophylactic CND for PTC. Prophylactic CND ipsilateral to the tumor associated with total thyroidectomy may represent an effective strategy for reducing the rate of permanent hypoparathyroidism. Concomitant completion contralateral paratracheal lymph node neck dissection should be performed in presence of lymph node metastasis on intraoperative frozen-section pathology. This approach limits the use of bilateral CND to patients with intraoperative pathological findings of lymph node metastases. © Copyright 2012, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2012.

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