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The Hague, Netherlands

Almeida J.P.,University of Campinas | De Albuquerque L.A.F.,Santa Casa de Belo Horizonte | Gomes E.,Otorhinolaryngology | Schops M.,Federal University of Ceara | Mota J.I.,Endocrinology
Journal of Neurosurgery | Year: 2015

Object With the increase in the average life expectancy, medical care of elderly patients with symptomatic pituitary adenoma (PA) will continue to grow. Little information exists in the literature about the surgical treatment of these patients. The aim of this study was to present the results of a single pituitary center in the surgical treatment of PAs in patients > 70 years of age. Methods In this retrospective study, 55 consecutive elderly patients (age ≥ 70 years) with nonfunctioning PAs underwent endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery at the General Hospital of Fortaleza, Brazil, between May 2000 and December 2012. The clinical and radiological results in this group were compared with 2 groups of younger patients: < 60 years (n = 289) and 60-69 years old (n = 30). Results Fifty-five patients ≥ 70 years of age (average age 72.5 years, range 70-84 years) underwent endoscopic surgery for treatment of PAs. The mean follow-up period was 50 months (range 12-144 months). The most common symptoms were visual impairment in 38 (69%) patients, headache in 16 (29%) patients, and complete ophthalmoplegia in 6 (10.9%). Elderly patients presented a higher incidence of ophthalmoplegia (p = 0.032) and a lower frequency of pituitary apoplexy before surgery (p < 0.05). Tumors with cavernous sinus invasion were treated surgically less frequently than in younger patients. Although patients with an American Society of Anesthesiologists score of 3 were more common in the elderly group (p < 0.05), no significant difference regarding surgical time, extent of resection, and hospitalization were observed. Elderly patients presented with more complications than patients < 60 years (32.7% vs 10%, p < 0.05). Complications observed in the elderly group included 5 CSF leaks (9%), 2 permanent diabetes insipidus cases (3.6%), 4 postoperative refractory hypertension cases (7.2%), 1 myocardial ischemia (1.8%), and 1 death (1.8%). Postoperative new anterior pituitary deficit was more common in the younger group (< 60 years old: 17.7%) than in the elderly (≥ 70 years old: 12.7%); however, there was no statistical difference. Conclusions Endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery for elderly patients with PAs may be associated with higher complication rates, especially secondary to early transitory complications, when compared with surgery performed in younger patients. Although the worst preoperative clinical status might be observed in this group, age alone is not associated with a worst final prognosis after endoscopic removal of nonfunctioning PAs. © AANS, 2015.

Kalcioglu M.T.,Otorhinolaryngology
Clinical and Experimental Otorhinolaryngology | Year: 2013

Objectives. This experimental study investigated the possible protective effect of beta glucans on amikacin ototoxicity. Methods. Thirty-eight rats with normal distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) were divided into four groups. Group K was the control group. Group A was injected intramuscularly (i.m.) with amikacin 600 mg/kg/day between days 1-15. Group AB was given beta glucan gavage 1 mg/kg/day on days 0-15 and given amikacin 600 mg/kg/day i.m. on days 1-15. Group B was administered only beta glucan gavage, 1 mg/kg/day, on days 0-15.The DPOAEs were elicited in different frequency regions between 2,003 and 9,515 Hz, as distortion product diagrams (DPgrams), before and after the medication was administered, in all groups, on days 1, 5, 10, and 15. Results. No significant changes in the DPgrams were observed in group K. In group A, significant deterioration was observed at the 8,003 and 9,515 Hz frequencies on day 10, and at the 3,991, 4,557, 5,660, 6,726, 8,003, and 9,515 Hz frequencies on day 15. For group AB, statistically significant deterioration was observed at the 2,824, 8,003, and 9,515 Hz frequencies on day 15. The results for group B showed a significant improvement of hearing at the 2,378, 2,824, 3,363, and 3,991 Hz frequencies on day 1, at the 3,363, 3,991, and 8,003 Hz frequencies on day 10, and at the 8,003 Hz frequency on day 15. Conclusion. This study suggests that amikacin-induced hearing loss in rats may be limited to some extent by concomitant use of beta glucan. © 2013 by Korean Society of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery.

Heslet L.,Serendex ApS | Bay C.,Copenhagen University | Nepper-Christensen S.,Otorhinolaryngology
Journal of Inflammation Research | Year: 2012

Background: Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) experience recurrent infections and develop chronically infected lungs, which initiates an altered immunological alveolar environment. Endstage pulmonary dysfunction is a result of a long sequence of complex events in CF, progressing to alveolar macrophage dysfunction via a T-helper 2 (T h2) dominated alveolar inflammation with CD20 T-cell activation, induced by the chronic infection and showing a poor prognosis. There is great potential for treatment in transforming the T h2 into the more favorable T-helper 1 (T h1) response. Methods: Current literature in the PubMed database and other sources was reviewed in order to evaluate aspects of the innate alveolar host defense mechanisms and the potential impact on the immunoinflammatory response of inhalation of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in patients with CF. Results: It seems that the cellular host defense, (ie, the alveolar macrophage and neutrocyte function) and the inhaled GM-CSF interact in such a way that the so-called tolerant alveolar environment dominated by the T h2 response may be transformed into an active T h1 state with a normal pulmonary host defense. The shift of the T h2 to the T h1 subset dominated by specific and unspecific antibodies may be achieved after the inhalation of GM-CSF. A clinical report has shown promising results with inhalation of GM-CSF in a chronically-infected CF patient treated with several antibacterial and antifungal agents. Inhaled GM-CSF transformed the tolerance toward the Gram-negative infection reflected by the so-called T h2 subset into the more acute T h1 response characterized by recruitment of the T-cells CD8 and CD16, a condition related to better-preserved lung function. This indicated a transformation from a state of passive bacterial tolerance toward the Gram-negative infecting and colonizing bacteria. This GM-CSF effect cannot be achieved by administering the drug via the IV route because the drug is water-soluble and too large to penetrate the alveolocapillary membrane. Conclusions: Inhalation of GM-CSF seems to be a novel way to positively modulate the alveolar environment toward an altered immunological state, reflected by a positive change in the pattern of surrogate markers, related to better preservation of pulmonary function and thus improved outcomes in CF patients. It is suggested that future studies examining standard endpoint variables such as number of infections and amount of antibiotics used should be supplemented by surrogate markers, to reveal any positive cellular and cytokine responses reflecting changes in the alveolar compartment after GM-CSF inhalation. The immunological alveolar environment should be monitored by a specific pattern of surrogate markers. Continued research is clearly indicated and the role of inhaled GM-CSF in modulating pulmonary host defense in CF patients should be investigated in a large study. © 2012 Heslet et al, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd.

Moreira D.A.,Federal University of Sao Paulo | Gananca M.M.,Otorhinolaryngology | Caovilla H.H.,Otology and Neurotology
Brazilian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology | Year: 2012

The use of illicit drugs and alcohol can affect body balance. Aim: To evaluate balance control with static posturography in individuals addicted to illicit drugs, with or without alcohol abuse. Study design: Case-control, prospective. Methods: 47 users of illicit drugs, with or without alcohol abuse, and a homogeneous control group consisting of 47 healthy individuals were submitted to a neurotological evaluation including Balance Rehabilitation Unit posturography. Results: The stability threshold mean values were significantly lower (p < 0.0001) in users of illicit drugs, with or without alcohol abuse when compared to the control group; the mean values for sway velocity and ellipse area in all evaluated conditions were significantly higher (p <0.05) in the experimental group when compared to the control group, except for the ellipse area in static force surface and opened eyes (p = 0.168). Conclusion: The balance control of individuals addicted to illicit drugs with or without alcohol abuse could present stability threshold, sway velocity and ellipse area abnormalities in static posturography.

Tsuboi K.,Center and Hematology | Yamamoto H.,Otorhinolaryngology
Genetics in medicine : official journal of the American College of Medical Genetics | Year: 2014

BACKGROUND: Between 2009 and 2012, there was a worldwide shortage of agalsidase-β for the treatment of Fabry disease. Therefore, alternative treatments were needed, including switching to a different enzyme-replacement therapy.PURPOSE: This is an ongoing observational study assessing the effects of switching from agalsidase-β (1.0 mg/kg every other week) to agalsidase-α (0.2 mg/kg every other week) in 11 patients with Fabry disease.METHODS: Clinical data were collected for 5 years-2 years before switching and 3 years after switching.RESULTS: Measures of renal function such as estimated glomerular filtration rate remained stable during the 3 years after switching to agalsidase-α. Improvements in cardiac mass were recorded in both male and female patients 12 months after switching to agalsidase-α, and the benefit was maintained during 36 months of follow-up. There was no significant difference in the severity of pain experienced by patients before and after switching enzyme-replacement therapy, and no difference in quality-of-life parameters. Agalsidase-α was generally well tolerated, and no patients experienced allergy or developed antibodies to agalsidase-α.CONCLUSION: This observational study supports the safety of switching from agalsidase-β to agalsidase-α at the approved doses, with no loss of efficacy. It also suggests that if an infusion-related allergic reaction occurs in a patient receiving agalsidase-β, switching to agalsidase-α may be a viable option.

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