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Seemungal B.,Imperial College London | Kaski D.,Imperial College London | Lopez-Escamez J.A.,Otology and Neurotology Group CTS495
Neurologic Clinics

Vestibular migraine is the most common cause of acute episodic vestibular symptoms after benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. In contrast, Ménière's disease is an uncommon disorder. For both conditions, early and accurate diagnosis (or its exclusion) enables the correct management of patients with acute episodic vestibular symptoms. Long-term management of migraine requires changes in lifestyle to avoid triggers of migraine and/or prophylactic drugs if attacks become too frequent. The long-term management of Ménière's disease also involves lifestyle changes (low salt diet), medications (betahistine, steroids), and ablative therapy applied to the diseased ear (eg, intratympanic gentamicin). © 2015 Elsevier Inc.. Source

Gazquez I.,University of Granada | Moreno A.,Hospital Universitario Virgen Of Las Nieves | Requena T.,University of Granada | Ohmen J.,House Research Institute | And 10 more authors.
European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology

Variability in acute immune response genes could determine susceptibility or prognosis for Ménière′s disease (MD). The cytokines tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) and interferon γ (INFγ) are proinflammatory cytokines of the innate immune response. These cytokines mediate inflammation and have been previously associated with the inflammatory process in several autoimmune diseases. We investigated the association between functional allelic variants of MIF (rs35688089), IFNG (rs2234688) and TNFA (rs1800629) in patients with MD. In addition to testing these variants for an association with disease, we also tested for an association with clinical aspects of disease progression, such as persistence of vertigo and the sensorineural hearing loss. A total of 580 patients with diagnosis of definite MD, according to the diagnostic scale of the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, and 552 healthy controls were included. DNA samples from a set of 291 American patients were used to confirm the results obtained in the MIF gene in our Spanish cohort. Although we found a significant association with the allele containing five repeats of CATT within the MIF gene in patients with MD in the Spanish cohort [corrected p = 0.008, OR = 0.69 (95 % CI, 0.54-0.88)], this finding could not be replicated in the American set. Moreover, no genetic associations for variants in either the TNFA or IFNG genes and MD were found. These results support the conclusion that functional variants of MIF, INFG, and TFNA genes are not associated with disease susceptibility or hearing loss progression in patients with MD. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Gazquez I.,University of Granada | Lopez-Escamez J.A.,University of Granada | Lopez-Escamez J.A.,Otology and Neurotology Group CTS495 | Moreno A.,University of Granada | And 15 more authors.
DNA and Cell Biology

Hearing loss in Ménière's disease (MD) is associated with loss of spiral ganglion neurons and hair cells. In a guinea pig model of endolymphatic hydrops, nitric oxide synthases (NOS) and oxidative stress mediate loss of spiral ganglion neurons. To test the hypothesis that functional variants of NOS1 and NOS2A are associated with MD, we genotyped three functional variants of NOS1 (rs41279104, rs2682826, and a cytosine-adenosine microsatellite repeat in exon 1f) and the CCTTT repeat in the promoter of NOS2A gene (rs3833912) in two independent MD sets (273 patients in total) and 550 controls. A third cohort of American patients was genotyped as replication cohort for the CCTTT repeat. Neither allele nor genotype frequencies of rs41279104 and rs2682826 were associated with MD, although longer alleles of the cytosine-adenosine microsatellite repeat were marginally significant (corrected p = 0.05) in the Mediterranean cohort but not in a second Galicia cohort. Shorter numbers of the CCTTT repeat in NOS2A were significantly more frequent in Galicia controls (OR = 0.37 [CI, 0.18-0.76], corrected p = 0.04), but this finding could not be replicated in Mediterranean or American case-control populations. Meta-analysis did not support an association between CCTTT repeats and risk for MD. Severe hearing loss (>75 dB) was also not associated with any functional variants studied. Functional variants of NOS1 and NOS2A do not confer susceptibility for MD. © Copyright 2011, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Source

Shearer A.E.,University of Iowa | Eppsteiner R.W.,University of Iowa | Booth K.T.,University of Iowa | Ephraim S.S.,University of Iowa | And 28 more authors.
American Journal of Human Genetics

Ethnic-specific differences in minor allele frequency impact variant categorization for genetic screening of nonsyndromic hearing loss (NSHL) and other genetic disorders. We sought to evaluate all previously reported pathogenic NSHL variants in the context of a large number of controls from ethnically distinct populations sequenced with orthogonal massively parallel sequencing methods. We used HGMD, ClinVar, and dbSNP to generate a comprehensive list of reported pathogenic NSHL variants and re-evaluated these variants in the context of 8,595 individuals from 12 populations and 6 ethnically distinct major human evolutionary phylogenetic groups from three sources (Exome Variant Server, 1000 Genomes project, and a control set of individuals created for this study, the OtoDB). Of the 2,197 reported pathogenic deafness variants, 325 (14.8%) were present in at least one of the 8,595 controls, indicating a minor allele frequency (MAF) >0.00006. MAFs ranged as high as 0.72, a level incompatible with pathogenicity for a fully penetrant disease like NSHL. Based on these data, we established MAF thresholds of 0.005 for autosomal-recessive variants (excluding specific variants in GJB2) and 0.0005 for autosomal-dominant variants. Using these thresholds, we recategorized 93 (4.2%) of reported pathogenic variants as benign. Our data show that evaluation of reported pathogenic deafness variants using variant MAFs from multiple distinct ethnicities and sequenced by orthogonal methods provides a powerful filter for determining pathogenicity. The proposed MAF thresholds will facilitate clinical interpretation of variants identified in genetic testing for NSHL. All data are publicly available to facilitate interpretation of genetic variants causing deafness. © 2014 by The American Society of Human Genetics. All rights reserved. Source

Lopez-Escamez J.A.,Otology and Neurotology Group CTS495 | Lopez-Escamez J.A.,University of Granada | Saenz-Lopez P.,Hospital Universitario Virgen Of Las Nieves | Gazquez I.,Otology and Neurotology Group CTS495 | And 9 more authors.
BMC Medical Genetics

Background: Autoimmune diseases with elevated circulating autoantibodies drive tissue damage and the onset of disease. The Fcγ receptors bind IgG subtypes modulating the clearance of circulating immune complexes (CIC). The inner ear damage in Ménière's disease (MD) could be mediated by an immune response driven by CIC. We examined single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) in the CD16A and CD32 genes in patients with MD which may determine a Fcγ receptor with lower binding to CIC.Methods: The functional CD16A (FcγRIIIa*559A > C, rs396991) and CD32A (FcγRIIa*519A > G, rs1801274) SNPs were analyzed using PCR-based TaqMan Genotyping Assay in two cohorts of 156 mediterranean and 112 Galicia patients in a case-control study. Data were analyzed by χ2with Fisher's exact test and Cochran-Armitage trend test (CATT). CIC were measured by ELISA for C1q-binding CIC.Results: Elevated CIC were found in 7% of patients with MD during the intercrisis period. No differences were found in the allelic frequency for rs396991 or rs1801274 in controls subjects when they were compared with patients with MD from the same geographic area. However, the frequency of AA and AC genotypes of CD16A (rs396991) differed among mediterranean and Galicia controls (Fisher's test, corrected p = 6.9 × 10-4for AA; corrected p = 0.02 for AC). Although genotype AC of the CD16A receptor was significantly more frequent in mediterranean controls than in patients, [Fisher's test corrected p = 0.02; OR = 0.63 (0.44-0.91)], a genetic additive effect for the allele C was not observed (CATT, p = 0.23). Moreover, no differences were found in genotype frequencies for rs396991 between patients with MD and controls from Galicia (CATT, p = 0.14). The allelic frequency of CD32 (rs1801274) was not different between patients and controls either in mediterranean (p = 0.51) or Galicia population (p = 0.11).Conclusions: Elevated CIC are not found in most of patients with MD. Functional polymorphisms of CD16A and CD32 genes are not associated with onset of MD. © 2011 Lopez-Escamez et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

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