Otolaryngology Unit

Marina di Pisa, Italy

Otolaryngology Unit

Marina di Pisa, Italy
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Yarden-Bilavsky H.,Tel Aviv University | Raveh E.,Otolaryngology Unit | Raveh E.,Tel Aviv University | Livni G.,Tel Aviv University | And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology | Year: 2013

Background: Anaerobic bacteria are uncommon etiologic agents of acute mastoiditis in children. However, recent studies suggest an increase in the incidence of Fusobacterium necrophorum mastoid infections in the last two decades. Methods: A surveillance study performed over 3.5 years in a tertiary pediatric medical center identified 7 children with acute F. necrophorum mastoiditis. Clinical, laboratory, and treatment data were collected by file review. Results: Five of the 7 children presented in the last year of the study. All 7 children were less than 26 months old on admission, and none had a history of otogenic infections. All cases were characterized by significantly elevated levels of inflammatory markers. All were diagnosed as complicated mastoiditis with abscess formation. Four children had an epidural abscess, three children had evidence of osteomyelitis beyond the mastoid bone, and four children had imaging evidence of sinus vein thrombosis. All seven children required cortical mastoidectomy with ventilatory tubes insertion and two children required more than one surgical intervention. During follow-up, two children had recurrent episodes of mastoiditis due to other pathogens. Conclusion: Our data support the literature suggesting that the occurrence of F. necrophorum mastoiditis among children is rising. Acute coalescent mastoiditis due to F. necrophorum is associated with a complicated course and warrants particular attention by pediatricians, infectious disease experts, and ear, nose and throat specialists. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Mazzoni A.,Otolaryngology Unit | Mazzoni A.,Neurosurgery Unit | Biroli F.,Neurosurgery Unit | Foresti C.,Neurophysiology Unit | And 3 more authors.
Acta Otorhinolaryngologica Italica | Year: 2011

Quality and rate of preserved hearing are crucial to make hearing preservation surgery a viable treatment. A long-term experience with hearing preservation surgery, with tumour size and hearing as admission criteria, was evaluated to assess which size and hearing allowed a high rate of success. The hearing outcome in relation to size of tumour and pre-operative hearing was retrospectively reviewed in a consecutive series of 115 cases of sporadic acoustic neuroma which were operated on with hearing preservation surgery. Inclusion criteria were hearing with ≤ 30 dB pure tone average and ≥ 70% Speech Discrimination Score. The size was ≤ 15 mm in the first series of 51 cases, and ≤ 10 mm in the second series of 64 cases. Pre-operative and post-operative pure tone average were measured at 0.5 to 4.0 KHz, and speech discrimination score at ≤ 40 dB above perception. Post-operative hearing within 30 dB pure tone average and 70% speech discrimination score was considered socially useful hearing and successful outcome. The change to 40 dB pure tone average and 60% speech discrimination score from a pre-operative 30 pure tone average/70% speech discrimination score was considered an acceptable outcome. Patients with a tumour of ≤ 10 mm size in the cerebello-pontine-angle and hearing within 20 dB pure tone average/80% speech discrimination score had a success rate of 76%. Patients with hearing between the 20 dB pure tone average/80% speech discrimination score and 30 dB pure tone average/ 70% speech discrimination score had a success rate of 41%, which increased to 53% if the limit to success was set at 40 dB pure tone average/60% speech discrimination score. Patients with a tumour larger than 10 mm or hearing worse than 30 dB pure tone average/70% speech discrimination score had a poor preservation rate. In conclusion, hearing preservation surgery on a ≤ 10 mm acoustic neuroma with good hearing had a high rate of success and appeared to be a realistic treatment option which could be integrated with observation and radiotherapy in updated guidelines of treatment.

PubMed | University of Padua, University of Trieste, Otolaryngology Unit and Instituto Oncologico Veneto IRCCS
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Oral oncology | Year: 2015

The aim of the present study was to investigate the pattern of telomere length and telomerase expression in cancer tissues and the surrounding mucosa (SM), as markers of field cancerization and clinical outcome in patients successfully treated for with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC).This investigation was a prospective cohort study. Telomere length and levels of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) transcripts were quantified by real-time PCR in cancer tissues and SM from 139 and 90 patients with HNSCC, respectively.No correlation was found between age and telomere length in SM. Patients with short telomeres in SM had a higher risk of mucosal failure (adjusted HR=4.29). Patients with high TERT levels in cancer tissues had a higher risk of regional failure (HR=2.88), distant failure (HR=7.27), worse disease-specific survival (HR for related death=2.62) but not mucosal failure. High-risk patients having both short telomeres in SM and high levels of TERT in cancer showed a significantly lower overall survival (HR=2.46).Overall these findings suggest that telomere shortening in SM is a marker of field cancerization and may precede reactivation of TERT. Short telomeres in SM are strongly prognostic of mucosal failure, whereas TERT levels in cancer tissues increase with the aggressiveness of the disease and are prognostic of tumor spread.

PubMed | Endocrinology Unit and Thyroid Diseases Center, Pathology Unit, Otolaryngology Unit and Molecular Biology Laboratory
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Endocrine pathology | Year: 2016

Thyroid fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology is the primary tool for the diagnostic evaluation of thyroid nodules. BRAF mutation analysis is employed as an ancillary tool in indeterminate cases, as recommended by the American Thyroid Association management guidelines. Hereby, we report the case of a 73-year-old woman who presented an 8-mm-size, ill-defined, left thyroid nodule. FNA resulted suspicious for papillary thyroid carcinoma. BRAF mutation status was analyzed, and somatic BRAF (V600E) mutation identified. The patient underwent a total thyroidectomy. At histological examination, the nodule was composed of Langerhans cells, admixed with many eosinophils. A final diagnosis of Langerhans cell histiocytosis of the thyroid was made. Our case emphasizes the critical diagnostic pitfalls due to the use of BRAF (V600E) mutation analysis in thyroid FNA. Notably, BRAF (V600E) mutation is common in melanoma, colorectal carcinoma, lung carcinoma, ovarian carcinoma, brain tumors, hairy cell leukemia, multiple myeloma, and histiocytoses. Therefore, in cases of indeterminate FNA with unclassifiable atypical cells BRAF (V600E) mutated, the possibility of a localization of hystiocytosis or a secondary thyroid malignancy should be taken into account.

Comar M.,University of Trieste | Grasso D.,Otolaryngology Unit | dal Molin G.,University of Trieste | Zocconi E.,Otolaryngology Unit | Campello C.,University of Trieste
International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology | Year: 2010

Objective: Human herpes virus 6 (HHV-6), the agent of a self-limiting exanthematic disease in childhood, persists in a silent state in the secondary lymphoid organs and the reactivation is characterized by HHV-6-induced inflammatory cytokines. This study investigates the possible etiological role of HHV-6 in children affected by tonsil and adenoid hypertrophy. Methods: 55 tonsils, 80 adenoids fresh tissues and 74 blood samples were collected from 80 children (mean age 4.8 years, 43.5% female) undergoing elective tonsillectomy and/or adenoidectomy for tissue hypertrophy. Moreover, patients with <5 years old documented upper airway recurrent infections not related to relapsing of acute tonsillitis. Specific IgG antibodies and virus detection (by PCR, variant A/B enzymatic genotyping and real-time PCR) were performed. Results: In our series, HHV-6 seroprevalence was tested at 50%. HHV-6 variant B was the unique strain finding in 25% of adenoids, in 12.7% of tonsils and in 4% of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). HHV-6-B was prevalent in tonsils of children affected by upper airway infections (17.8% vs 7.4%) while the adenoids represented the more frequent reservoir (30.7% vs 19.5%) in patients with hypertrophy. HHV-6 viral load was low, ranging from 80 to 600 copies/106 cells suggesting a latent/persistent phase of infection. Conclusion: These results reinforce the role of the secondary lymphoid organs as an important reservoir for HHV-6B. Nevertheless, infection of lymphoid cells, sustained by a low level of replication, could be sufficient to increase the local injury through an autologous mechanism of inflammation. © 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

PubMed | Mayo Medical School, Endocrinology Unit, Scientific Directorate and Otolaryngology Unit
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Laryngoscope | Year: 2015

The aim of this study was to identify any possible predictive factors of lateral neck recurrence in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma with no ultrasonographic and/or cytological evidence of lymph node metastasis at time of diagnosis. The influence of lateral neck recurrence on survival was also investigated.Observational retrospective study.Retrospective review of clinical records of 610 patients surgically treated for papillary thyroid carcinoma with clinically negative lymph nodes at the Otolaryngology Unit of the Arcispedale Santa Maria Nuova-IRCCS, Reggio Emilia, Italy, from January 1984 to December 2008.Lateral neck recurrences were ipsilateral to the primary tumor in all cases and were associated with the occurrence of more aggressive histological variants and central neck metastasis. Lateral neck recurrences were more frequently observed in patients with distant metastases and were associated with a reduced disease-specific survival.Lateral neck compartment ipsilateral to the tumor was the most common site of recurrence, with about half of cases appearing in the first 28 months of follow-up. In patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma, detection of lateral neck metastases prior to first surgery is crucial to surgical planning. Aggressive histological variants and postsurgical evidence of lymph node metastasis from papillary thyroid carcinoma in central neck compartment are associated with a higher risk of lateral neck recurrence. In these patients, a closer postsurgical ultrasound surveillance of the lateral neck compartments seems worthwhile.4.

Quaranta N.,Otolaryngology Unit | Iannuzzi L.,Otolaryngology Unit | Gelardi M.,Otolaryngology Unit
Current Allergy and Asthma Reports | Year: 2014

Otitis media with effusion (OME) is characterized by the presence of fluid in the middle ear cavity behind an intact eardrum and is considered a multifactorial condition with Eustachian tube dysfunction as the underlying pathophysiologic condition. One of the most debated causes of OME is allergy, in particular allergic rhinitis. The aim of this paper is to review the role of rhinitis in the development of OME and in particular the role of both allergic (AR) and non-allergic rhinitis (NAR). Most of the recent literature confirms the role of AR in the development of OME, while there are few reports on the role of NAR. In non-allergic children affected by obstructive adenoid hypertrophy, the presence of mast cells in the nasal smear was associated with a high risk of developing a chronic OME. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Giordano D.,Otolaryngology Unit | Panini A.,Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Unit | Pernice C.,Otolaryngology Unit | Raso M.G.,University of Parma | Barbieri V.,Otolaryngology Unit
American Journal of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Medicine and Surgery | Year: 2014

Lidocaine is commonly used for topical anesthesia of the upper airway in patient with anticipated difficult tracheal intubation undergoing awake fiberoptic intubation. Lidocaine toxicity is dose related and proportional to its plasma level. Although neurologic toxicity has been frequently observed with intravenous use, it has also been reported for topical use. We report on a case of a patient with base tongue abscess who developed sudden seizures and coma during application of topical anesthesia with lidocaine for awake fiberoptic intubation. The presence of a deep neck infection that causes hyperemia and edema of the pharyngolaryngeal mucosa may enhance transmucosal systemic absorption of local anesthetic. Moreover, conditions such as hypercarbia, dysphagia, or hepatic diseases are known to facilitate onset of lidocaine neurologic toxicity with serum concentration lower than normal. These findings should be kept in mind before administering topical anesthesia of the upper airway. In the presence of any of these conditions above, either the total dose of local anesthetic or its concentration should be reduced as much as possible. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

PubMed | University of Parma, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia and Otolaryngology Unit
Type: Case Reports | Journal: Auris, nasus, larynx | Year: 2016

Post-traumatic cricothyroid joint dislocation is reported in the literature. Trauma of the laryngeal framework is the most common cause. As a result, spontaneous non-traumatic cricothyroid joint dislocation is very rarely described. We report the case of a patient with spontaneous cricothyroid joint dislocation with the aim of reporting the diagnostic and therapeutic findings related to this rare entity. History and physical examination may suggest diagnosis. Computed tomography scan can confirm diagnosis and detect coexistence of anatomic anomalies of the neck. Reduction of dislocation may be easily performed in outpatient setting, producing immediate relief from dysphonia and neck pain. As CTJ dislocation is a speech-related disorder, appropriate speech therapy is advisable in order to avoid relapse.

PubMed | Otolaryngology Unit
Type: Case Reports | Journal: Acta bio-medica : Atenei Parmensis | Year: 2015

Sphenoid sinus lesions are rare entities, occurring in 2 - 3% out of all paranasal sinus lesions. Isolated oculomotor nerve palsy due to acute sphenoid sinusitis is very rare, with only few cases reported in literature.Retrospective report about a case of isolated acute sphenoid sinusitis in a child with a left-sided third cranial nerve paralysis as the only sign at presentation.Isolated oculomotor nerve palsy can be the initial sign of an isolated acute sphenoid sinusitis in children and it requires a high index of suspicion in order to avoid a delay in diagnosis.Magnetic resonance imaging should be promptly performed. Functional endoscopic sinus surgery represents the treatment of choice in order to restore sinus drainage and avoid further intracranial or ocular complications. The need of serial postoperative debridement under general anesthesia should be adequately scheduled and previously discussed with parents.

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