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Chicago Ridge, IL, United States

Zhang S.,PLA Fourth Military Medical University | Zeng Y.,Xijing Hospital | Qu J.,Otolaryngology | Luo Y.,PLA Fourth Military Medical University | And 2 more authors.
Reproduction | Year: 2013

Administration of exogenous epidermal growth factor (EGF) improves testicular injury after acute ischemia-reperfusion (IR) stress, but the molecular basis is poorly understood. The role of endogenous EGF in testicular recovery and the underlying intracellular signaling pathways involved were herein investigated. In mice, testicular IR injury significantly enhanced the expression level of endogenous Egf at the very beginning of reperfusion. Expression of EGF receptor (Egfr (ErbB1)) was accordingly upregulated 3 h after reperfusion. Deprivation of majority of circulated EGF by sialoadenectomy aggravated testicular detriment (especially in pachytene spermatocytes), enhanced germ cell apoptosis, and thereafter resulted in impaired meiotic differentiation after IR insult. Mechanistically, endogenous EGF signaling appeared to be indispensable for the proper maintenance of Sertoli germ cells anchoring junction dynamics during the early testicular recovery. We also provided the in vitro evidences in a well-established rat Sertoli germ cell co-cultures model that the pro-survival effect of endogenous EGF on germ cells in response to testicular IR insult is mediated, at least in part, via the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/pAkt pathway. Collectively, our results suggest that the augment of endogenous EGF during the early testicular recovery may act on top of an endocrinous cascade orchestrating the intimate interactions between Sertoli cells and germ cells and may operate as indispensable defensive mechanism in response to testicular IR stress. Future studies in this field would shed light on this complicated pathogenesis. © 2013 Society for Reproduction and Fertility. Source

Patterson J.M.,Northumbria University | McColl E.,Northumbria University | Carding P.N.,Otolaryngology | Hildreth A.J.,Northumbria University | And 2 more authors.
Head and Neck | Year: 2014

Background. This prospective study evaluated swallowing outcomes prechemoradiotherapy (pre-CRT) up to 1 year post-CRT, in a substantial cohort of patients with head and neck cancer and explored factors predicting outcome. Methods. One hundred twelve patients were assessed pretreatment and at 3, 6, and 12 months posttreatment using a questionnaire, endoscopic assessment, water swallow test, and diet score. Results. Seventy-one patients were retained, the majority had oropharyngeal (53%) or hypopharyngeal cancer (20%). A marked deterioration occurred between pretreatment and 3 months posttreatment (p ≤.01). Significant improvement between 3 and 12 months was found on 2 swallowing measures, but not self reported. Three of the 4 pretreatment assessments predicted outcomes at 1 year. Conclusion. CRT results in a marked deterioration on different paradigms of swallowing measurements. Improvement occurs on some clinical measures, but limited change is observed in patients' perceptions. Pretreatment measures are important indicators of long-term dysphagia. Swallowing recovery is complex, taking different courses between clinical tests and perspectives. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

Lakhani R.S.,Otolaryngology
Current Opinion in Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery | Year: 2016

Purpose of review Cleft lip and palate still remains one of the most common congenital anomalies, and consequently surgical correction of these anomalies is still commonplace. Despite numerous existing surgical techniques having good outcomes, it is still recognized that the morbidity of certain surgical procedures and success rates regarding outcomes can be improved. The purpose of this review is to evaluate new literature and techniques compared with the time tested procedures that are commonly used. Recent findings As technology continues to advance, the understanding of details regarding biochemical pathways responsible for the development of cleft defects and also the efficacy of biomaterials that can be used in their correction are being discovered and better understood. Many studies have been conducted in both animal and human study participants that further the understanding of these questions. The efficacy and benefit of newly devised biomaterials seems to indicate that these biomaterials are a viable adjunct and often an alternative in the treatment of cleft palate patients. Summary In this review of recent literature, the discussion begins with a review of the more traditional and widely accepted iliac crest bone grafting and then evolves into a discussion of several animal and human studies to delineate the progress being made in this field. The literature exploring the details regarding biochemical pathways and cellular mediators that are involved in cleft formation, as well as biomaterials used in surgical repair are evaluated. The findings in the literature suggest that there is a bright future in better understanding the cause of cleft formation on a molecular level and associated attempts that can be made in altering some of these factors along with discovering new biomaterials that can be a useful adjunct to existing techniques. © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. Source

Kassir R.,Otolaryngology | Kolluru A.,New York Medical College | Kassir M.,Dermatology | Kassir M.,Mona Lisa Cosmetic Surgery Center
Journal of Cosmetic and Laser Therapy | Year: 2011

Background: Rosacea is a chronic disease that affects the aesthetic appearance of skin. The use of intense pulsed light (IPL) has shown significant clearing in erythema, telangiectasia, and papules in rosacea. We seek parameters for IPL that will achieve optimal reduction in the appearance of rosacea with minimal adverse effects. Objective: To investigate the use of IPL on 102 patients at various parameters (fluence and pulse duration) in the treatment of rosacea. Methods: 102 patients with mild to severe rosacea were treated with IPL treatment using the NaturaLight IPL system (Focus Medical, Bethel, CT). Patients received treatments at 13 week intervals, with an average of 7.2 treatments. The Reveal Imager (Canfield Scientific, Fairfield, NJ) was used for photodocumentation and analyses. Results: Treatments were given at 2.5/5 ms double, triple, or quadruple pulsed with 2030 ms delay time. A 530 nm filter was used with fluences varying from 1030 J/cm 2, or 1020 J/cm 2 with a 420 nm filter for those patients with acneiform breakouts in addition to telangiectasias. 80% of patients had reduction in redness, 78% of patients reported reduced flushing and improved skin texture, and 72% noted fewer acneiform breakouts. There were no complications or adverse effects. Conclusion: The use of IPL at specified parameters provides optimal therapy for the treatment of rosacea. © 2011 Informa UK, Ltd. Source

Mirza S.,Otolaryngology | Chetwood A.S.A.,Royal Hallamshire Hospital
British Journal of Health Care Management | Year: 2012

Unnecessary outpatient follow-up appointments need to be minimised to increase efficiency in the NHS. Trainee surgeons tend to follow-up more patients than consultants. We aimed to identify the difference in follow-up rates between trainee specialist registrars (SpRs) and a consultant's opinion to see if there was potential to decrease trainee follow-up rates. We retrospectively reviewed the letters of four general ENT (ear, nose and throat) clinics performed by five SpRs and noted the follow-up outcomes. The letters were then reviewed by a consultant otolaryngologist and their opinion on what the follow-up decision could have been was noted. 260 consultations were reviewed. SpRs had significantly higher follow-up rates than the consultant (67% vs 27%, p < 0.0001, Chi squared test). There is potential to significantly reduce the follow-up rates of trainees in ENT surgery through appropriate training and monitoring. Source

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