Kawamoto T.,Hiroshima University |
Kawamoto T.,Japan Society for the Promotion of Science |
Nittono H.,Hiroshima University |
Ura M.,Hiroshima University |
Ura M.,Otemon Gakuin University
Social Neuroscience | Year: 2014
Social exclusion is so aversive that it causes broad cognitive and behavioral changes to regulate the individual's belonging status. The present study examined whether such changes also occur at early neural or automatic behavioral levels in response to social cues. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) and facial electromyograms (EMGs) were recorded during a task in which participants viewed smiling, disgusted, and neutral faces after experiencing social exclusion or inclusion. Social exclusion was manipulated using a simple ball-tossing game (Cyberball), and need threat was assessed after the game. We found that zygomaticus major muscle activity, which reflects facial mimicry, was larger in response to smiling faces after exclusion than after inclusion. In addition, P1 amplitude, which reflects visual attention, was larger for disgusted faces than for neutral faces following social exclusion. N170 amplitude, which reflects structural encoding of the face, was correlated with heightened need threat. These findings demonstrate that social exclusion induces immediate and rapid changes in attention, perception, and automatic behavior. These findings reflect the rapid and primary regulation of belonging. © 2014 © 2014 Taylor & Francis.
Nakao T.,Hiroshima University |
Matsumoto T.,Hiroshima University |
Shimizu D.,Hiroshima University |
Morita M.,Hiroshima University |
And 6 more authors.
Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience | Year: 2013
Harm avoidance (HA) and novelty seeking (NS) are temperament dimensions defined by Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), respectively, reflecting a heritable bias for intense response to aversive stimuli or for excitement in response to novel stimuli. High HA is regarded as a risk factor for major depressive disorder and anxiety disorder. In contrast, higher NS is linked to increased risk for substance abuse and pathological gambling disorder. A growing body of evidence suggests that patients with these disorders show abnormality in the power of slow oscillations of resting-state brain activity. It is particularly interesting that previous studies have demonstrated that resting state activities in medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) are associated with HA or NS scores, although the relation between the power of resting state slow oscillations and these temperament dimensions remains poorly elucidated. This preliminary study investigated the biological bases of these temperament traits by particularly addressing the resting state low-frequency fluctuations in MPFC. Regional hemodynamic changes in channels covering MPFC during 5-min resting states were measured from 22 healthy participants using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). These data were used for correlation analyses. Results show that the power of slow oscillations during resting state around the dorsal part of MPFC is negatively correlated with the HA score. In contrast, NS was positively correlated with the power of resting state slow oscillations around the ventral part of MPFC. These results suggest that the powers of slow oscillation at rest in dorsal or ventral MPFC, respectively, reflect the degrees of HA and NS. This exploratory study therefore uncovers novel neural bases of HA and NS. We discuss a neural mechanism underlying aversion-related and reward-related processing based on results obtained from this study. © 2013 Nakao, Matsumoto, Shimizu, Morita, Yoshimura, Northoff, Morinobu, Okamoto and Yamawaki.
Kawamoto T.,Japan Society for the Promotion of Science |
Kawamoto T.,Hiroshima University |
Ura M.,Otemon Gakuin University |
Nittono H.,Hiroshima University
Frontiers in Neuroscience | Year: 2015
People have a fundamental need to belong with others. Social exclusion impairs this need and has various effects on cognition, affect, and the behavior of excluded individuals. We have previously reported that activity in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (rVLPFC) could be a neurocognitive index of social exclusion (Kawamoto et al., 2012). In this article, we provide an integrative framework for understanding occurrences during and after social exclusion, by reviewing neuroimaging, electrophysiological, and behavioral studies of dACC and rVLPFC, within the framework of intrapersonal and interpersonal processes of social exclusion. As a result, we have indicated directions for future studies to further clarify the phenomenon of social exclusion from the following perspectives: (1) constructional elements of social exclusion, (2) detection sensitivity and interpretation bias in social exclusion, (3) development of new methods to assess the reactivity to social exclusion, and (4) sources of social exclusion. © 2015 Kawamoto, Ura and Nittono.
Takemura N.,Kyoto University |
Inui T.,Otemon Gakuin University |
Fukui T.,Tokyo Metroplitan University
Developmental Science | Year: 2017
Pointing is one of the communicative actions that infants acquire during their first year of life. Based on a hypothesis that early pointing is triggered by emergent reaching behavior toward objects placed at out-of-reach distances, we proposed a neural network model that acquires reaching without explicit representation of 'targets'. The proposed model controls a two-joint arm in a horizontal plane, and it learns a loop of internal forward and inverse transformations; the former predicts the visual feedback of hand position and the latter generates motor commands from the visual input through random generation of the motor commands. In the proposed model, the motor output and visual input were represented by broadly tuned neural units. Even though explicit 'targets' were not presented during learning, the simulation successfully generated reaching toward visually presented objects at within-reach and out-of-reach distances. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Inui T.,Otemon Gakuin University |
Kumagaya S.,Tokyo University of Science |
Myowa-Yamakoshi M.,Kyoto University
Frontiers in Human Neuroscience | Year: 2017
Previous models or hypotheses of autism spectral disorder (ASD) failed to take into full consideration the chronological and causal developmental trajectory, leading to the emergence of diverse phenotypes through a complex interaction between individual etiologies and environmental factors. Those phenotypes include persistent deficits in social communication and social interaction (criteria A in DSM-5), and restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities (criteria B in DSM-5). In this article, we proposed a domain-general model that can explain criteria in DSM-5 based on the assumption that the same etiological mechanism would trigger the various phenotypes observed in different individuals with ASD. In the model, we assumed the following joint causes as the etiology of autism: (1) Hypoplasia of the pons in the brainstem, occurring immediately following neural tube closure; and (2) Deficiency in the GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) developmental switch during the perinatal period. Microstructural abnormalities of the pons directly affect both the structural and functional development of the brain areas strongly connected to it, especially amygdala. The impairment of GABA switch could not only lead to the deterioration of inhibitory processing in the neural network, but could also cause abnormal cytoarchitecture. We introduced a perspective that atypical development in both brain structure and function can give full explanation of diverse phenotypes and pathogenetic mechanism of ASD. Finally, we discussed about neural mechanisms underlying the phenotypic characteristics of ASD that are not described in DSM-5 but should be considered as important foundation: sleep, global precedence, categorical perception, intelligence, interoception and motor control. © 2017 Inui, Kumagaya and Myowa-Yamakoshi.
Okamura Y.,Otemon Gakuin University
Polish Psychological Bulletin | Year: 2017
The purpose of the study was twofold: Experiment 1 tested the possibility that the mere recollection of food aroused a state of hunger and that different types of food influenced the state of hunger differently; Experiment 2 tested the possibility that food cues affected altruistic behavior. In Experiment 1, 28 participants reported how hungry they felt before and after their recollection of certain foods (noodles and pudding). Results suggest that recollection of food increased hunger and that the type of food influenced the degree of hunger (F(2,54) = 31.88, p < .001, η2 = .54). In Experiment 2, 63 participants were randomly assigned to one of three recollection conditions: (1) noodles, (2) pudding, and (3) control. Participants in the two conditions described each food in detail; control group participants did not. Participants were then asked how much they would be willing to participate in an ostensible experiment. Results indicate that recollection-induced hunger reduced altruistic behavior (F(2, 60) = 4.11, p = .021, η2 = .12). Cue reactivity theory and the hierarchy of needs could explain these results. © Polish Academy of Sciences, Committee for Psychological Sciences 2017.
Cui Y.,Otemon Gakuin University
Communications in Computer and Information Science | Year: 2015
With the establishment of highly advanced and sophisticated iSC, enterprises are able to improve their competitiveness, and meanwhile, effortlessly overcome the issues which cannot be resolved under the traditional supply chain operation. When we intensely show our concern to the construction of iSC, the fragility of supply chain caused by continuous pursue of high efficiency cannot be neglected. Resilience resembles to the immune system of supply chain, the more we pay attention to it, the more robust and stable the supply chain is. Henceforth, through the synergy effect of the acquired experience during the enhancement of resilience and the accumulation of information and network technology which progresses during the establishment of supply chain, operation of supply chain will turn out to be more simple and secure. Meanwhile, improvement of customer satisfaction degree will also benefit from it. In this paper, we propose a relationship model that is utilized to define the mechanism of improving Supply Chain Resilience with employment of IoT. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015.
Kinugasa T.,Otemon Gakuin University
Studies in Regional Science | Year: 2014
In this paper, we developed a pilot model of the public service production structure of the local government in Japan. “The productivity analysis of the local government in Japan;a production function approach” was previously published by Kinugasa (the Otemon Economic Bulletin, 45(2), pp. 34-53, 2011). In the previous manuscript (Kinugasa 2011), the Cobb-Douglas type production function and the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) were estimated to measure the productivity of local governments in Japan. As the next step, we estimate the multi-output production function. Two major purposes supplied by local governments such as cities, towns and villages are defined. The first purpose is “municipal income distribution” and the second is “population growth rate”. In local governments, there are various types of public services, for example, elementary and secondary education, welfare of persons with disabilities, welfare of the aged, medical services, firefighting, etc. The various public services for citizens must be integrated to estimate the production function of local governments. However, these services are difficult to integrate. We adopted “municipal income distribution” as one integrated indicator that is the consequence of monetary oriented public services by local governments. This indicator is based on the former report by Kinugasa (2011). Another indicator, “population growth rate” we adopted is not precisely “output of public services”, but is defined as “the result of improvement in the welfare of public services in every local government”. Many people migrate from one region to other region based on comparison of the welfare of public services. Non-monetary oriented public services by local governments are integrated as an indicator of “population growth rate”. From the estimated results and consideration of conditions, the multi-output production function of local governments we propose provides a reasonable result. © 2014, Japan Section of the Regional Science Association International. All Rights Reserved.
Nakano N.,Otemon Gakuin University
International Journal of Innovative Computing, Information and Control | Year: 2011
Recently, an agent-based problem has been attracting much attention in various fields, for instance marketing research as well as economic and social sciences. Though many researchers treat this problem, learning effects of agents cannot be disregarded because most agents (perwons,) often change their action rule according to circumstances. In this paper we deal with an agent-based problem including Q-learning algorithm, which is one of reinforcement learning methods. In this study, we employ two kinds of agents, followers and pioneerw, and design their characters by using Q values. Agents rJcirJ their ottiturJs by ones which nighhor ognts show, nm] thri Q ?Yn1?IFS nr updated. Simulation studies show that the results of agent-based simulations are affected by action rules of agents and the initial attitudes of agents. © 2011 ISSN.
Ishida A.,Otemon Gakuin University
Journal of Mathematical Physics | Year: 2014
We study multidimensional inverse scattering for Hamiltonians with repulsive potentials. Assuming short-range conditions for the interaction potential, the high velocity limit of the scattering operator determines uniquely the short-range part, using the Enss-Weder time-dependent method (1995). This work improves on a previous result obtained by Nicoleau (2006). We can allow interaction potentials to have not only slower decays but also Coulomb-like singularities. © 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.