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Kita-ku, Japan

Ōtani University is a private Buddhist university located in Kita-ku, Kyoto, Japan. Ōtani University is a coeducation institution with an emphasis on Buddhist studies. A two year private junior college is associated with the university. The university is associated with the Ōtani School of Jōdo Shinshū, or Shin, school of Buddhism. Wikipedia.

Takahashi M.,Japan Society for the Promotion of Science | Takahashi M.,Otani University | Ueno Y.,Kyoto University | Fujita K.,Kyoto University
Journal of Comparative Psychology | Year: 2015

Four species (capuchin monkeys, tree shrews, rats, and hamsters) performed an inference task situated in a social context. In Experiment 1, capuchin monkeys first explored food sites under 1 of 2 conditions: In 1 condition, food was refilled after it was eaten (replenished condition), whereas it was not refilled (depleted condition) in the other condition. Two food sites were presented for each condition. In the test phase, a subject watched a conspecific demonstrator visit 1 of the food sites in either the replenished or depleted condition. A screen placed in front of the sites prevented the subject from seeing the demonstrator actually eat the food. When the demonstrator was removed, the subject explored the cage. Three of 4 monkeys tended to go to the unvisited sites in the depleted condition, but tended to go to the visited site in the replenished condition. This suggests that they inferred that there was no food because the demonstrator had eaten it. In Experiment 2, using the same procedure, 2 nongroup-living species (tree shrews and hamsters) were indifferent to demonstrator behavior and visited sites only randomly, and group-living rats showed a strong tendency to follow demonstrators, irrespective of the type of food site. These tendencies were unchanged when olfactory information was added in Experiment 3 and when motivation to compete increased in Experiment 4. These results suggest that only capuchin monkeys have the ability to solve an inference task when cued by social information. © 2015 American Psychological Association.

Yamaguchi T.,Kochi University | Suzuki H.,Otani University | Soe A.-N.,Defence Services Academy | Htike T.,Shwebo University | And 2 more authors.
Zootaxa | Year: 2015

The ostracode genus Bicornucythere (Ostracoda, Crustacea) is abundant in modern-day eutrophic marine bays, and is widely distributed in estuaries and inner bays throughout East Asia, including in China, Korea, Japan, and the Russian Far East. The evolutionary history of Bicornucythere is poorly understood. Here, we report on a new species of Bicornucythere (Bicornucythere concentrica sp. nov.) from the upper Eocene Yaw Formation in the Central Myanmar Basin. The oldest previously known Bicornucythere taxon, Bicornucythere secedens, was reported from lower Miocene strata in India, although a molecular phylogeny suggests that the genus first appeared in the Late Cretaceous. Bicornucythere concentrica sp. nov. is at least 10.9 million years older than the earliest known B. secedens. The new species occurs with Ammonia subgranulosa, a benthic foraminifer, an association that is representative of brackish water conditions in modern Asian bays. Our findings indicate that extant genera have inhabited Asian bays since the late Eocene. The paleobiogeography of Bicornucythere indicates that the taxon was dispersed onto Indian coasts during the collision between the Indian and Eurasian plates. Copyright © 2015 Magnolia Press.

The objective of this paper is to analyze the factors influencing the continuity of small-scale pig husbandry, which is practiced widely in hillside villages in continental Southeast Asia. For this purpose, we used the results of a case study in a hillside Hmong village in Nan province, northern Thailand. In particular, we examined the factors of continuity of small-scale pig husbandry by describing the following points: 1) the type of pigs villagers kept: 2) the type of feed given to the pigs; and 3) how the villagers used the pigs they kept. The results are outlined below. First, the main factor in the continuity of husbandry is that the villagers regularly use pigs for events with dual religious and social aspects. The religious aspect involves offering pigs in ritual sacrifice for an annual ancestor worship event while the social one is related to the use of pork in feasts for celebratory events, which play a role in reaffirming relationships with other villagers. Second, the main factor in small-scale husbandry relates to the techniques of collecting pig feed and the labor demanded for it. The number of pigs that can be kept by each household is regulated by the characteristics of freshness of plant feed, for example, banana leaves and stems, which are plentiful near the village but cannot be kept fresh for a long period of time. Therefore, villagers need to collect feed almost every day from the area around the village.

Zaw K.,University of Tasmania | Meffre S.,University of Tasmania | Takai M.,Kyoto University | Suzuki H.,Otani University | And 7 more authors.
Gondwana Research | Year: 2014

The Late Middle Eocene Pondaung Formation, central Myanmar hosts the richest deposit of terrestrial mammals in SE Asia. The Pondaung Formation contains anthropoid primates, such as Eosimiidae, Amphipithecidae and the new Afrotarsiidae, plus adapiform primates and is a critical locality in discussions on anthropoid origins and biogeography. The sands of the Pondaung Formation were derived from the erosional unroofing of a dissected andesitic volcanic arc and deposited on the forested floodplains of a large tropical river. Previously, the age of the Pondaung Formation was estimated to be Middle to Late Eocene based on stratigraphic evidence, Late Middle Eocene (Bartonian) based on comparisons with mammals from North America and Europe, 37.2. ±. 1.3. Ma and 38.8. ±. 1.4. Ma based on fission track dating and 37.4-37.0. Ma based on questionable magnetostratigraphic correlations. Here, we report a new LA-ICP-MS, U-Pb age for zircons from a tuffaceous bed in the Pondaung Formation of 40.31. ±. 0.65. Ma and 40.22. ±. 0.86. Ma which is slightly older than the debatable magnetostratigraphic ages of 37-36. Ma and 38-39. Ma for the anthropoids from Egypt and Libya. Pending the acquisition of similarly reliable radiometric dates from all the North African and Asian sites, this new date provides support for an Asian origin for the anthropoids. Our new dates are close to the molecular clock date for the origin of the anthropoid primates and may provide a reliable calibration point for the molecular phylogenetic method. © 2013 International Association for Gondwana Research.

Murakawa T.,Wakayama University | Watagami Y.,Wakayama University | Utsunomiya K.,Otani University | Nakagawa M.,Wakayama University
Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence and Applications | Year: 2012

The full-text retrieval system which is available in Internet-incapable places is reported. To use the retrieval service in a quick and efficient manner, there are properties which the system should require. Portability, accuracy and timeliness are defined as requirements for practical use and we constructed the system for satisfying all these properties. Moreover we supplied the registration support and implemented a unique bookmark feature in order that the system can fulfill the properties named installation-facility and reusability. Evaluation experiments made sure that the added features were useful for the information retrieval. Since the system is developed for supporting literature searching by humanities researchers, it does not only accept a variety of document files but split Excel files by row into the records at the time of registration. Application of the service to source code management is also discussed. © 2012 The authors and IOS Press. All rights reserved.

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