Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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Espindola O.M.,Oswaldo Cruz Foundation | Vizzoni A.G.,Oswaldo Cruz Foundation | Lampe E.,Oswaldo Cruz Institute IOC FIOCRUZ | Andrada-Serpa M.J.,Oswaldo Cruz Foundation | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Infectious Diseases | Year: 2017

Objectives Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection is associated with neurological abnormalities, such as HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) and peripheral neuropathy (PN). Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is the leading cause of chronic liver disease worldwide, and causes PN in approximately 9% of patients. Because the interplay between these potentially neuropathogenic viruses in the same individual is still poorly understood, the clinical and laboratory outcomes of co-infected patients were evaluated and compared with those of controls. Methods The prevalence rates of neurological and laboratory abnormalities were evaluated in HCV/HTLV-1 co-infected patients (n = 50), and in subjects with single HCV (n = 46) or HTLV-1 (n = 150) infection. Results A higher frequency of isolated PN was present in HCV-infected patients; this was not associated with cryoglobulinemia. No difference was found in the frequency of PN or HAM/TSP when co-infected subjects were compared to singly infected subjects. Hepatic involvement was present in HCV-infected subjects, as shown by increased levels of serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, and bilirubin, in addition to thrombocytopenia. On the other hand, HCV/HTLV-1 co-infected individuals presented a better prognosis for hepatic involvement when compared with singly HCV-infected subjects. Conclusions These data suggest that HCV/HTLV-1 co-infection does not mutualistically alter the outcome with regard to neurological manifestations. Nonetheless, changes in the immunological environment induced by HTLV-1 infection could lead to a reduction in hepatic damage, even without significant HCV clearance. © 2017


Casal G.,University of Porto | Casal G.,The Interdisciplinary Center | Casal G.,Instituto Superior Of Ciencias Da Saude Norte | Clemente S.C.S.,Federal University of Fluminense | And 8 more authors.
Parasitology Research | Year: 2012

The ultrastructure of the fish-infecting microsporidium Spraguea gastrophysus found in the dorsal ganglia and kidney of the anglerfish, Lophius gastrophysus (family Lophiidae) collected on the Brazilian Atlantic coast is described. Each whitish xenoma (up to 3.1∈×∈1.8 mm) contains several groups of parasites. The host cells are hypertrophied and contain various parasite life stages including mature spores and several developmental stages with unpaired nuclei. Monomorphic spores are ellipsoidal, lightly curved and measure about 3.35∈×∈1.71 μm. The spore contains a gradually tapering isofilar polar filament with five to six coils arranged in a single row. The nucleus occupies a central zone of the sporoplasm where also several polyribosomes are presented. The posterior vacuole contains a voluminous spherical and granular posterosome measuring up to ~0.65 μm in diameter. The partial small subunit, intergenic spacer and partial large subunit rRNA gene were sequenced and the phylogenetic analysis places the microsporidian described here in the clade that includes all sequences of the Spraguea genus. The ultrastructural morphology of the xenoma and the spores of this microsporidian parasite, as well as the molecular and phylogenetic analysis, suggest the description of a new species. A redefining of the genus Spraguea is also done. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.


Kroning Luna C.,Oswaldo Cruz Institute IOC Fiocruz | Rotenberg L.,Oswaldo Cruz Institute IOC Fiocruz | Silva-Costa A.,Oswaldo Cruz Institute IOC Fiocruz | Toivanen S.,University of Stockholm | And 2 more authors.
BioMed Research International | Year: 2015

Job strain, derived from high psychological demands and low job control, is associated with insomnia, but information on the role of emotional demands and social support in this relationship is scarce. The aims of this study were (i) to test the association between job strain and self-reported insomnia symptoms, (ii) to evaluate the combination of emotional demands and job control regarding insomnia symptoms, and (iii) to analyze the influence of social support in these relationships. This cross-sectional study refers to a sample of nurses (N = 3,013 and N = 3,035 for Job Strain and Emotional demand-control model, resp.) working at public hospitals in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Data were collected through a self-report questionnaire. The prevalence of insomnia symptoms was 34.3%. Job strain was associated with increased odds for insomnia symptoms (OR: 2.20); the same result was observed with the combination of emotional demands and low job control (OR: 1.99). In both models, the inclusion of low social support combined with high demands and low job control led to increased odds for insomnia symptoms, compared to groups with high social support from coworkers and supervisors. Besides job strain, the study of emotional demands and social support are promising with regards to insomnia symptoms, particularly among nurses. © 2015 Luciana Fernandes Portela et al.


Coelho M.B.,Lutheran University of Brazil | Costa E.R.D.,State Foundation for Production and Research in Health CDCT FEPPS | Vasconcellos S.E.G.,Oswaldo Cruz Institute IOC FIOCRUZ | Linck N.,Lutheran University of Brazil | And 10 more authors.
Mutation Research - Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis | Year: 2011

The present study was carried out to investigate the presence of polymorphism in the N-acetyltransferase gene of 41 clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, that were resistant to isoniazid (INH) with no mutations in the hot spots of the genes previously described to be involved in INH resistance (katG, inhA and ahpC). We observed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ten of these, including the G619A SNP in five isolates and an additional four so far un-described mutations in another five isolates. Among the latter SNPs, two were synonymous (C276T, n=1 and C375G, n=3), while two more non-synonymous SNPs were composed of C373A (Leu→Met) and T503G (Met→Arg) were observed in respectively one and two isolates. Molecular modeling and structural analysis based in a constructed full length 3D models of wild type TBNAT (TBNAT_H37Rv) and the isoforms (TBNAT_L125M and TBNAT_M168R) were also performed. The refined models show that, just as observed in human NATs, the carboxyl terminus extends deep within the folded enzyme, into close proximity to the buried catalytic triad. Analysis of tbnat that present non-synonymous mutations indicates that both substitutions are plausible to affect enzyme specificity or acetyl-CoA binding capacity. The results contribute to a better understanding of structure-function relationships of NATs. However, further investigation including INH-sensitive strains as a control group is needed to get better understanding of the possible role of these new mutations on tuberculosis control. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


PubMed | State University of Feira de Santana, Oswaldo Cruz Institute IOC Fiocruz and University of Stockholm
Type: | Journal: BioMed research international | Year: 2015

Job strain, derived from high psychological demands and low job control, is associated with insomnia, but information on the role of emotional demands and social support in this relationship is scarce. The aims of this study were (i) to test the association between job strain and self-reported insomnia symptoms, (ii) to evaluate the combination of emotional demands and job control regarding insomnia symptoms, and (iii) to analyze the influence of social support in these relationships. This cross-sectional study refers to a sample of nurses (N = 3,013 and N = 3,035 for Job Strain and Emotional demand-control model, resp.) working at public hospitals in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Data were collected through a self-report questionnaire. The prevalence of insomnia symptoms was 34.3%. Job strain was associated with increased odds for insomnia symptoms (OR: 2.20); the same result was observed with the combination of emotional demands and low job control (OR: 1.99). In both models, the inclusion of low social support combined with high demands and low job control led to increased odds for insomnia symptoms, compared to groups with high social support from coworkers and supervisors. Besides job strain, the study of emotional demands and social support are promising with regards to insomnia symptoms, particularly among nurses.


PubMed | Oswaldo Cruz Institute IOC Fiocruz
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Chronobiology international | Year: 2016

We analyzed the association between change in work schedule and modifications in nutritional status. We performed a panel study with nursing professionals based on two surveys seven year apart (n = 372). Groups with no change in work schedule, change from daytime to night shift, and change from night to daytime shift were analyzed. Outcomes were weight gain and body mass index (BMI) category increase. Participants who changed from daytime to night shift showed about twice increase in odds of more than 5 kg weight gain and BMI category increase. Changing from daytime to night work seems to influence weight and BMI.


Lucena S.A.,National Institute of Metrology of Brazil | Lucena S.A.,Oswaldo Cruz Institute IOC FIOCRUZ | Moraes C.S.,Oswaldo Cruz Institute IOC FIOCRUZ | Moraes C.S.,National Institute of Science and Technology INCT EM | And 9 more authors.
Analytical Biochemistry | Year: 2013

We adapted the protocols of reducing sugar measurements with dinitrosalicylic acid and bicinchoninic acid for thermocyclers and their use in enzymatic assays for hydrolases such as amylase and β-1,3-glucanase. The use of thermocyclers for these enzymatic assays resulted in a 10 times reduction in the amount of reagent and volume of the sample needed when compared with conventional microplate protocols. We standardized absorbance readings from the polymerase chain reaction plates, which allowed us to make direct readings of the techniques above, and a β-glycosidase assay was also established under the same conditions. Standardization of the enzymatic reaction in thermocyclers resulted in less time-consuming temperature calibrations and without loss of volume through leakage or evaporation from the microplate. Kinetic parameters were successfully obtained, and the use of the thermocycler allowed the measurement of enzymatic activities in biological samples from the field with a limited amount of protein. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Thompson C.C.,Oswaldo Cruz Institute IOC FIOCRUZ | Emmel V.E.,Oswaldo Cruz Institute IOC FIOCRUZ | Fonseca E.L.,Oswaldo Cruz Institute IOC FIOCRUZ | Marin M.A.,Oswaldo Cruz Institute IOC FIOCRUZ | Vicente A.C.P.,Oswaldo Cruz Institute IOC FIOCRUZ
F1000Research | Year: 2013

The identification of the clinically relevant viridans streptococci group, at species level, is still problematic. The aim of this study was to extract taxonomic information from the complete genome sequences of 67 streptococci, comprising 19 species, by means of genomic analyses, multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA), average amino acid identity (AAI), genomic signatures, genome-to-genome distances (GGD) and codon usage bias. We then attempted to determine the usefulness of these genomic tools for species identification in streptococci. Our results showed that MLSA, AAI and GGD analyses are robust markers to identify streptococci at the species level, for instance, S. pneumoniae, S. mitis, and S. oralis. A Streptococcus species can be defined as a group of strains that share ≥ 95% DNA similarity in MLSA and AAI, and &> 70% DNA identity in GGD. This approach allows an advanced understanding of bacterial diversity. © 2013 Thompson CC et al.


D'Avila H.,Federal University of Juiz de fora | D'Avila H.,Oswaldo Cruz Institute IOC FIOCRUZ | Toledo D.A.M.,Federal University of Juiz de fora | Toledo D.A.M.,Oswaldo Cruz Institute IOC FIOCRUZ | And 2 more authors.
Mediators of Inflammation | Year: 2012

The flagellated protozoa Trypanosoma cruzi is the causal agent of Chagas' disease, a significant public health issue and still a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Latin America. Acute Chagas' disease elicits a strong inflammatory response. In order to control the parasite multiplication, cells of the monocytic lineage are highly mobilized. Monocyte differentiation leads to the formation of phagocytosing macrophages, which are strongly activated and direct host defense. A distinguishing feature of Chagas' disease-triggered macrophages is the presence of increased numbers of distinct cytoplasmic organelles termed lipid bodies or lipid droplets. These organelles are actively formed in response to the parasite and are sites for synthesis and storage of inflammatory mediators. This review covers current knowledge on lipid bodies elicited by the acute Chagas' disease within inflammatory macrophages and discusses the role of these organelles in inflammation. The increased knowledge of lipid bodies in pathogenic mechanisms of infections may not only contribute to the understanding of pathogen-host interactions but may also identify new targets for intervention. Copyright 2012 Heloisa D'Avila et al.


PubMed | Oswaldo Cruz Institute IOC FIOCRUZ
Type: Journal Article | Journal: BMC health services research | Year: 2017

Nurses intention to leave their profession is a worldwide concern. Studies have shown that it can take the form of a chain reaction: many nurses first leave the unit, then the hospital, and finally the profession. Organisation and other labour factors, personal and conjunctural, have been associated with the intention to quit nursing. This study aimed to examine the factors associated with the intention to leave the profession among registered nurses (RNs) at large public hospitals in Brazil.This was a cross-sectional study, conducted from 2010 to 2011: all RNs at Rio de Janeiros 18 largest public hospitals (>150 beds) were invited to participate. The study sample comprised 3,229 RNs (82.7% of those eligible), who answered a self-completed, multidimensional paper questionnaire. The outcome was defined as thoughts of leaving the profession sometimes a month or more. We based the analyses on hierarchical logistic regression models, considering three blocks of determinants: socio-demographic data (block I), occupational factors (block II), and health conditions (block III).Of the study population, 22.1% indicated the intention to leave the profession. In the final model after adjustment, the variables associated with the intention to leave were as follows: male sex (odds ratio [OR]=1.65), not holding a leadership position (OR=1.28), highly demanding work (OR=2.49), passive work (OR=2.10), effort-reward imbalance (OR=2.00), poor self-rated health (OR=1.92), over-commitment to the job (OR=1.87), and poor supervisor support (OR=1.33). The likelihood of expressing the intention to leave increased with age (OR=0.98 for the oldest).Self-rated health and factors connected with the work environment, particularly those that generate psychosocial strain, were most strongly associated with the intention to leave the profession. From the profiles of nurses who wished to leave the profession, we found that for many people who go into nursing-especially men and younger entrants-their prospects of remaining in the profession are poor. The potential role of psychosocial job characteristics and self-rated health indicates the need for long-term action involving all stakeholders, i.e. managers, employers, and workers.

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