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Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Matta Guedes P.M.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte | Gutierrez F.R.S.,Antonio Narino University | Nascimento M.S.L.,University of Sao Paulo | Do-Valle-Matta M.A.,Oswaldo Cruz Institute FIOCRUZ | Silva J.S.,University of Sao Paulo
Tropical Medicine and International Health | Year: 2012

Chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy affects 20% of Chagas' disease patients. At present, Chagas' disease chemotherapy uses nitrofurans, benznidazole (Rochagan®, Rodanil®, Roche) or nifurtimox (Lampit®, Bayer). Treatment during acute and recent chronic phases in childhood effects 71.5% and 57.6%, respectively, of parasitological cure. However, in clinical trials during the late chronic phase, only 5.9% of parasitological cure were achieved. This review focuses on the benefit from aetiological treatment to avoid, stop or revert myocarditis. Divergent data gathered from clinical practice are not convincing to support prescription of aetiological treatment as routine for indeterminate and cardiac chronic patients. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Araujo J.M.G.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte | Bello G.,Instituto Oswaldo Cruz Fiocruz | Romero H.,University of the Republic of Uruguay | Nogueira R.M.R.,Oswaldo Cruz Institute FIOCRUZ
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases | Year: 2012

The incidence of dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever in Brazil experienced a significant increase since the emergence of dengue virus type-3 (DENV-3) at the early 2000s. Despite the major public health concerns, there have been very few studies of the molecular epidemiology and time-scale of this DENV lineage in Brazil. In this study, we investigated the origin and dispersion dynamics of DENV-3 genotype III in Brazil by examining a large number (n = 107) of E gene sequences sampled between 2001 and 2009 from diverse Brazilian regions. These Brazilian sequences were combined with 457 DENV-3 genotype III E gene sequences from 29 countries around the world. Our phylogenetic analysis reveals that there have been at least four introductions of the DENV-3 genotype III in Brazil, as signified by the presence of four phylogenetically distinct lineages. Three lineages (BR-I, BR-II, and BR-III) were probably imported from the Lesser Antilles (Caribbean), while the fourth one (BR-IV) was probably introduced from Colombia or Venezuela. While lineages BR-I and BR-II succeeded in getting established and disseminated in Brazil and other countries from the Southern Cone, lineages BR-III and BR-IV were only detected in one single individual each from the North region. The phylogeographic analysis indicates that DENV-3 lineages BR-I and BR-II were most likely introduced into Brazil through the Southeast and North regions around 1999 (95% HPD: 1998-2000) and 2001 (95% HPD: 2000-2002), respectively. These findings show that importation of DENV-3 lineages from the Caribbean islands into Brazil seems to be relatively frequent. Our study further suggests that the North and Southeast Brazilian regions were the most important hubs of introduction and spread of DENV-3 lineages and deserve an intense epidemiological surveillance. © 2012 Araújo et al.

De Almeida A.S.,Vanderbilt University | De Almeida A.S.,Oswaldo Cruz Institute FIOCRUZ | Fiske C.T.,Vanderbilt University | Sterling T.R.,Vanderbilt University | Kalams S.A.,Vanderbilt University
Clinical and Vaccine Immunology | Year: 2012

Extrapulmonary tuberculosis may be due to underlying immune compromise. Immunosuppressive regulatory T cells (Treg cells), and CD4 + T lymphocytes in general, are important in the host immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We evaluated T lymphocytes from patients after recovery from extrapulmonary tuberculosis, which may reflect conditions before M. tuberculosis infection. A case-control study was conducted among HIV-uninfected adults with previously treated extrapulmonary tuberculosis and 3 sets of controls: (i) subjects with previously treated pulmonary tuberculosis, (ii) close tuberculosis contacts with M. tuberculosis infection, and (iii) close tuberculosis contacts with no infection. Monocyte-depleted peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC-M) were stained for CD4 + CD25 hi CD127 low FoxP3 + cell (Treg cell) and T lymphocyte activation. Both characteristics were compared as continuous variables between groups with the Kruskal-Wallis test. There were 7 extrapulmonary tuberculosis cases, 18 pulmonary tuberculosis controls, 17 controls with M. tuberculosis infection, and 18 controls without M. tuberculosis infection. The median Treg cell proportion was highest among persons with previous extrapulmonary tuberculosis (1.23%) compared to subjects with pulmonary tuberculosis (0.56%), latent M. tuberculosis infection (0.14%), or no M. tuberculosis infection (0.20%) (P = 0.001). The median proportion of CD4 + T lymphocytes that expressed the activation markers HLA-DR and CD38 was highest for CD4 + T lymphocytes from persons with previous extrapulmonary tuberculosis (0.79%) compared to subjects with pulmonary tuberculosis (0.44%), latent M. tuberculosis infection (0.14%), or no M. tuberculosis infection (0.32%) (P = 0.005). Compared with controls, persons with previously treated extrapulmonary tuberculosis had the highest Treg cell frequency, but also the highest levels of CD4 + T lymphocyte activation. Immune dysregulation may be a feature of individuals at risk for extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Copyright © 2012, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Lima-Junior J.C.,Oswaldo Cruz Institute FIOCRUZ | Pratt-Riccio L.R.,Oswaldo Cruz Institute FIOCRUZ
Frontiers in Immunology | Year: 2016

The importance of host and parasite genetic factors in malaria resistance or susceptibility has been investigated since the middle of the last century. Nowadays, of all diseases that affect man, malaria still plays one of the highest levels of selective pressure on human genome. Susceptibility to malaria depends on exposure profile, epidemiological characteristics, and several components of the innate and adaptive immune system that influences the quality of the immune response generated during the Plasmodium lifecycle in the vertebrate host. But it is well known that the parasite's enormous capacity of genetic variation in conjunction with the host genetics polymorphism is also associated with a wide spectrum of susceptibility degrees to complicated or severe forms of the disease. In this scenario, variations in genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) associated with host resistance or susceptibility to malaria have been identified and used as markers in host-pathogen interaction studies, mainly those evaluating the impact on the immune response, acquisition of resistance, or increased susceptibility to infection or vulnerability to disease. However, due to the intense selective pressure, number of cases, and mortality rates, the majority of the reported associations reported concerned Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Studies on the MHC polymorphism and its association with Plasmodium vivax, which is the most widespread Plasmodium and the most prevalent species outside the African continent, are less frequent but equally important. Despite punctual contributions, there are accumulated evidences of human genetic control in P. vivax infection and disease. Herein, we review the current knowledge in the field of MHC and derived molecules (HLA Class I, Class II, TNF-α, LTA, BAT1, and CTL4) regarding P. vivax malaria. We discuss particularly the results of P. vivax studies on HLA class I and II polymorphisms in relation to host susceptibility, naturally acquired immune response against specific antigens and the implication of this knowledge to overcome the parasite immune evasion. Finally, the potential impact of such polymorphisms on the development of vaccine candidate antigens against P. vivax will be studied. © 2016 Lima-Junior and Pratt-Riccio.

Kumar T.,Indian Institute of Technology Bombay | Verma D.,Indian Institute of Technology Bombay | Menna-Barreto R.F.S.,Oswaldo Cruz Institute FIOCRUZ | Valenca W.O.,Federal University of Minas Gerais | And 2 more authors.
Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry | Year: 2015

A one-pot, two step synthesis of highly substituted imidazoles has been carried out in good to excellent yields for the first time via a cascade intermolecular aza-SN2′-intramolecular aza-Michael addition involving a variety of Morita-Baylis-Hillman acetates of nitroalkenes and amidines in the presence of DABCO at room temperature. The synthetic and biological utility of the products has been demonstrated. In particular, some of the imidazoles exhibited potent activity against T. cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015.

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