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Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

The Oswaldo Cruz Foundation is a scientific institution for research and development in biomedical science located in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, it is considered one of the world's main public health research institutions. It was founded by Dr. Oswaldo Cruz, a noted physician and epidemiologist.The Federal Serum Therapy Institute was established with the objective of developing serum and vaccines against the bubonic plague. The institute’s activities, however, changed from simple production into research and experimental medicine, especially after Oswaldo Cruz assumed its leadership in 1902. From there on, the institute became the base for memorable sanitation campaigns in an age of outbreaks and epidemics of the bubonic plague, yellow fever, and smallpox. The Institute, however, was not confined to Rio de Janeiro and, on the contrary, collaborated in the occupation of the country’s inlands through scientific expeditions, aiding in the development of the country. When Oswaldo Cruz died, in 1917, the Institute, which by then already bore his name, was nationally consolidated through important scientific achievements, such as Carlos Chagas’ description of the complete cycle of the American trypanosomiasis including the clinical pattern of the disease.On 16 January 2007, the Institute announced that it had developed a gel from algae which it is hoped will reduce HIV transmission to women.Today the institution has a broad range of responsibilities related to the health and wellbeing of the Brazilian population. This includes hospital and ambulatory care; health-related research; development of vaccines, drugs, reagents, and diagnostic kits; training of public health and health workers; and providing information and communications related to health, science, and technology. The Fiocruz workforce members are over 7,500. Fiocruz includes several fixed facilities in Rio de Janeiro and other locations; however, it contributes to improving health throughout the country, through its support to the Sistema Único de Saúde , its proposals on public health policy-making, its research activities, its scientific expeditions, and the reach of its health services and products.Fiocruz is one of the founding members of the International Association of National Public Health Institutes, a membership organization of national public health institutes. Wikipedia.

Paim J.,Federal University of Bahia | Paim J.,Institute Saude Coletiva | Travassos C.,Oswaldo Cruz Foundation | Almeida C.,Oswaldo Cruz Foundation | And 2 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2011

Brazil is a country of continental dimensions with widespread regional and social inequalities. In this report, we examine the historical development and components of the Brazilian health system, focusing on the reform process during the past 40 years, including the creation of the Unified Health System. A defining characteristic of the contemporary health sector reform in Brazil is that it was driven by civil society rather than by governments, political parties, or international organisations. The advent of the Unified Health System increased access to health care for a substantial proportion of the Brazilian population, at a time when the system was becoming increasingly privatised. Much is still to be done if universal health care is to be achieved. Over the past 20 years, there have been other advances, including investments in human resources, science and technology, and primary care, and a substantial decentralisation process, widespread social participation, and growing public awareness of a right to health care. If the Brazilian health system is to overcome the challenges with which it is presently faced, strengthened political support is needed so that financing can be restructured and the roles of both the public and private sector can be redefined. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Adibi J.J.,University of Pittsburgh | Marques E.T.A.,University of Pittsburgh | Marques E.T.A.,Oswaldo Cruz Foundation | Cartus A.,University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston | Beigi R.H.,University of Pittsburgh
The Lancet | Year: 2016

The mechanism by which the Zika virus can cause fetal microcephaly is not known. Reports indicate that Zika is able to evade the normal immunoprotective responses of the placenta. Microcephaly has genetic causes, some associated with maternal exposures including radiation, tobacco smoke, alcohol, and viruses. Two hypotheses regarding the role of the placenta are possible: one is that the placenta directly conveys the Zika virus to the early embryo or fetus. Alternatively, the placenta itself might be mounting a response to the exposure; this response might be contributing to or causing the brain defect. This distinction is crucial to the diagnosis of fetuses at risk and the design of therapeutic strategies to prevent Zika-induced teratogenesis. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

Brazil, the 6th largest world economy, has experienced rapid economic, demographic, and social structural changes during the last decade. Notwithstanding, Brazil being one of the most unequal societies worldwide, 40 million of 200 million Brazilians have moved from poverty to middle-class standards during this period. This review analyzes the success of different Brazilian initiatives aiming to reduce drug consumption-related harms, as well as the failed attempts to curb structural violence, despite some very recent initiatives have yet to be fully implemented and evaluated © 2012 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.

Nicol A.F.,Oswaldo Cruz Foundation
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes | Year: 2016

OBJECTIVE:: The aim of the current study was to evaluate secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) expression in anal biopsies from HIV-positive (HIV) individuals, and compare that to anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) diagnoses and human papillomavirus (HPV) status. DESIGN:: This is a cross-sectional study of a cohort of 54 HIV (31 males and 23 females) from an AIDS clinic in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. METHODS:: The study material consisted of anorectal tissue biopsies obtained from HIV subjects, which were used to construct tissue microarray paraffin blocks for immunohistochemical analysis of SLPI expression. Biopsies were evaluated by an expert pathologist and classified as low-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN1), high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN2/3), or normal squamous epithelium. Additionally, DNA from the biopsies was extracted and analyzed for the presence of low- or high-risk HPV DNA. RESULTS:: Histologically normal squamous epithelium from the anorectal region showed strong positive SLPI staining in 17/20 (85%) samples. In comparison, 9/17 (53%) dysplastic squamous epithelial samples from AIN1 patients showed strong SLPI staining, and only 5/17 (29%) samples from AIN2-3 patients exhibited strong SPLI staining, which both were significantly fewer than those from normal tissue (p=0.005). Furthermore, there was a significantly higher proportion of samples in which oncogenic high-risk HPV genotypes were detected in low SLPI expressing tissues than that in tissues with high SLPI expression (p=0.040). CONCLUSION:: Taken together these results suggest that low SLPI expression is associated with high-risk HPV infections in the development of AIN. Copyright © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

Otranto D.,University of Bari | Dantas-Torres F.,University of Bari | Dantas-Torres F.,Oswaldo Cruz Foundation
Trends in Parasitology | Year: 2013

Canine leishmaniasis (CanL) caused by Leishmania infantum is a vector-borne disease of great veterinary and medical significance. Prevention of CanL requires a combined approach including measures focused on dogs and the environment where the vectors perpetuate. Over past decades, considerable effort has been put towards developing novel and cost-effective strategies against CanL. Vaccination is considered among the most promising tools for controlling CanL, and synthetic pyrethroids are useful and cost-effective in reducing risk of L. infantum infection in dogs. The effectiveness of the use of vaccines plus repellents in preventing L. infantum infection and subsequent disease development should be assessed by means of large-scale, randomized controlled field trials because this combined strategy may become the next frontier in the control of CanL. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

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