Osogbo, Nigeria

Osun State University

Osogbo, Nigeria

Osun State University is a multi-campus university established by the Osun State of Nigeria. The university currently operates six campuses distributed across the six administrative/geopolitical zones of the state. Nigeria's National Universities Commission approved Osun State University on December 21, 2006, as the 30th State University and the 80th in the Nigerian university system. It has its campuses in Osogbo, Ikire, Okuku, Ifetedo, Ipetu Ijesha and Ejigbo which serves as campuses for Health science, Humanities and Culture, Social science and Management, Law, Education and Agriculture respectively. Wikipedia.

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Background Several studies have found that compliance with universal precautions (UP) reduces the risk of exposure to diseases transmitted through blood and body fluids. Several efforts were made during the 2014 Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in Nigeria to ensure a better behavioral change toward the practice of UP. Objectives This study assessed knowledge, attitude, and practice of the use of universal safety precautions among health care workers in a tertiary hospital in Osun State in southwestern Nigeria, 1 year after the containment of the EVD epidemic in Nigeria. Methods Descriptive cross-sectional study among 274 health care workers of LAUTECH Teaching Hospital Osogbo, selected using systematic sampling method. Data collected using semistructured, pretested questionnaires were analyzed using SPSS software version 17.0 (Chicago, IL, SPSS Inc.). Findings Two hundred twenty (80.3%) washed their hands regularly after procedures, 256 (93.4%) used gloves regularly when caring for all patients, 100 (36.5%) said they occasionally recap needles carefully, and 250 (91.2%) said they properly handled and disposed sharp instruments and wastes. About 224 (81.8%) had good mean knowledge score, 154 (56.2%) had a positive attitude score, and 192 (70.1%) had a good mean practice score for UP among respondents. The practice of UP was statistically significantly associated with gender, years of work experience (P = .002), and knowledge of (P = .039) and attitude about UP (P = .007). Conclusions The good knowledge and practice scores of UP were associated with better attitude toward handwashing and the use of gloves during the post-EVD period compared with the pre-EVD period. A significant proportion still recap used needles just like during the pre-EVD period. © 2016

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: ERC-SG | Phase: ERC-SG-SH2 | Award Amount: 1.50M | Year: 2012

This research investigates the role of religious difference and encounter by focusing on the multi-religious and notably tolerant Yoruba people of southwest Nigeria. Drawing on a large-scale ethnographic survey on the everyday lives of Muslims, Christians and traditionalists as well as field and archival work produced and collected by a Nigerian/UK-based research team under my leadership, the proposed research will explore the importance of religious difference for the constitution of important social identities as well as the establishment of practices of tolerance in one of Africas largest ethnic groups (more than 30 million Yoruba speakers). Through its Yoruba case study, the planned programme maps out the new field of everyday religious encounter. It will do so by (1) determining the incidence of bi- and multi-religious constellations including Muslims, Christians and traditionalists in contemporary marriages, families/ lineages, and in other contexts, (2) exploring the way in which religious differences and encounters structure the experiences, perceptions and behaviours of Yoruba individuals in their everyday social identities as men and women as well as members of different generations, and through life and family histories, (3) reflecting on the way in which the attitudes and practices of everyday life contribute to the high level of religious tolerance among adherents of different religions in Yorubaland, (4) developing, and refining in comparative debates, an understanding of the broader issues and theoretical relationships between the constitution of social identities and religious tolerance, and (5) initiating a paradigm shift in the theoretical and practical understanding of religious tolerance, both in Nigeria and in other countries in which religious difference is politicised, including Europe.

Adebimpe W.O.,Osun State University
African journal of reproductive health | Year: 2013

The number of children who have HIV continues to grow. Studies have confirmed dramatic survival benefits and mortality reduction for infants confirmed and managed as early as possible after diagnosis. With the advent of the Polymerase Chain Reaction technology, early infant diagnosis of HIV among children is easier and more reliable worldwide. Most HIV programmes in developing countries are donor dependent with less encouraging moves towards sustainability drive by the local health authority. The health systems also face a lot of challenges while implementing these programmes that would promptly identify HIV exposed babies as well as enrolment into care. This review examined challenges facing early infant diagnosis of HIV among infants in Nigeria.

The performance of hydro broiler chickens fed graded levels of soaked wild cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta L. Schott) corms (SWCC) as a partial substitute for maize were investigated in a 28 day study. One hundred and twenty (120) 4 week old hydro broiler chickens of similar average weight were randomly assigned to 4 dietary treatments. Each treatment had 3 replicates of 10 birds each. Four experimental diets were formulated such that SWCC replaced maize at 0.00, 10.00, 20.00 and 30.00% in the diets. The birds were fed ad libitum and clean drinking water was provided throughout the period of the study. Parameters investigated include the growth performance, carcass characteristics, haematological and serum biochemical indices. Result of the growth performance showed no significant (p>0.05) difference in average weekly feed intake. Average weekly weight gain and cost per kilogram feed decreased (p<0.05); FCR increased (p<0.05) with increased inclusion of SWCC in the diets. Cost of feed per kilogram weight gain (CFPKWG) of birds fed on all SWCC-based diets were significantly (p<0.05) lower than control. Result of carcass analysis indicated that live weight, plucked weight, Eviscerated Weight (EW), Dressed Weight (DW), GIT and organs (kidney, liver and gizzard) were significantly (p<0.05) affected by dietary treatments. The highest (p<0.05) EW (72.91%) and DW (64.78%) of the control were similar (p>0.05)toEW (71.51%) and DW (63.33%) of 10% SWCC; but higher (p<0.05) than those of 20 and 30% SWCC. Organ weights reflected their roles in handling residual anti-nutritional factors in SWCC. Variations obtained in all the serum biochemical indices and haematological parameters investigated were not significant (p<0.05). This may suggest adequacy of the nutrients and absence of deleterious health implications for the birds. It was concluded that SWCC can economically replace 30% of maize in the diets of broiler finishers with no deleterious effects on carcass quality and health of the birds. © 2012 Knowledgia Review, Malaysia.

Oyeyipo I.P.,Osun State University
Nigerian journal of physiological sciences : official publication of the Physiological Society of Nigeria | Year: 2010

This study investigated the effects of oral administration of nicotine on body and reproductive organ weight, serum testosterone level and testicular histology in adult male rats. Forty male rats divided into five groups and treated for a period of 30 days with 0.5mg/kg (low dose) and 1.0 mg/kg (high dose) body weight of nicotine while the control rats received 0.2 ml/kg normal saline. The fourth and fifth groups were gavaged with 0.5mg/kg and 1.0mg/kg body weight of nicotine but were left untreated for another 30 days. These groups served as the recovery groups.  At the end of each experimental period, the animals were scarified and their reproductive organs were removed and weighed immediately. There was no significant change in the body weight. There was a significant decrease (p <0.05) in the testicular and epididymal weight of rats for both treatments while the decrease in the seminal vesicle weight for both treatment groups was not significant. The prostate weight was not significantly increased in both groups. The recovery groups showed appreciable recovery in their organ weight. Serum level of testosterone of both groups was significantly decreased in a dose dependent manner when compared with those of the control rats. The histological section showed testicular degeneration and disorganization in the cytoarchitecture, as the observed changes were pronounced in the high dose group than the low dose group. However, there were both regeneration of the germinal epithelium and restructuring of the interstitum towards normal in the recovery groups. No lesion was observed in the epididymis of the rats. The results suggest that nicotine has deleterious effect on the male reproductive organ of albino rats ameliorated by nicotine cessation.

Abiodun O.M.,Osun State University
African journal of medicine and medical sciences | Year: 2013

Induced abortion is common and largely performed under clandestine and unsafe conditions in Nigeria. Complications from such procedures contribute significantly to maternal morbidity and mortality in the country. To determine the sociodemographic characteristics and pattern of complications present in patients managed for unsafe abortion. The patients studied were treated in Federal Medical Centre, Ido Ekiti, a tertiary health institution located in a rural town and a main referral hospital in Ekiti State, South West Nigeria. The records of patients admitted for complications of unsafe abortion over a 5-year period were analyzed with regard to sociodemographic characteristics, gestational age at termination of pregnancy, the providers, methods used and the complications they develop. A total of 102 patients were treated for complications of unsafe abortion during the period under review constituting 7.4% of total gynaecological admission. Majority (60.4%) of the patients were less than 25 years old, 74.0% were students while 81.3% were unmarried. Only 9.4% of the women had ever used contraceptives. Of all the cases, 21 (21.9%) were performed within 8 weeks of gestation while 47.9% were performed in the second trimester. Surgical uterine evacuation was the method used in 67.7% of the patients and 65.6% of the abortions were performed by non physicians. Sepsis was the commonest complication in the patients (79.2%) while uterine perforation was present in 12.5% of the women. The case fatality rate was 16.6% and unsafe abortion accounted for 30.8% of all maternal mortality during the period. As young single nulliparous students are the principal sufferers of complications of unsafe abortion in this study, young persons, especially in-school adolescents, should be targeted for the provision of comprehensive reproductive health services.

The impacts of bacterial infection on cultivated fish species, African catfish, were investigated using oxidative stress biomarkers [lipid peroxidation (LPO) and protein carbonylation] and the activities of important antioxidant/detoxifying enzymes [catalase and glutathione S-transferase (GST)]. Fish were inoculated via oral gavage with one of the following treatments: 1 × 105 CFU/ml of Escherichia coli (EC1), 2 × 105 CFU/ml of E. coli (EC2), 1 × 105 CFU/ml of Vibrio fischeri (V1), 2 × 105 CFU/ml of V. fischeri (V2), gavaged with distilled water and not gavaged. Fish were maintained in the laboratory for 7 days after the bacterial inoculation, and the levels of LPO, protein carbonylation, GST, and catalase activities were determined in the muscle, gills, and liver of fish. Fish inoculated with bacteria (either E. coli or V. fischeri) had a significant higher levels of tissue LPO, protein carbonylation, and GST activities in a tissue-specific pattern (liver > muscle > gills). This appears to be related with the levels of bacterial inoculation, with effects more pronounced in fish inoculated with either EC2 or V2. The catalase activity did not differ significantly between the inoculated and fish that were not inoculated. The results of this study indicate that bacterial inoculation could result in oxidative stress in fish, and liver has a higher rate of oxidative stress per mg tissue compared to the gills and the muscle. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Ademiluyi A.O.,Federal University of Technology Akurre | Ademiluyi A.O.,Osun State University | Oboh G.,Federal University of Technology Akurre
Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology | Year: 2013

This study sought to assess the inhibitory activities of phenolic-rich extracts from soybean on α-amylase, α-glucosidase and angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) activities in vitro. The free phenolic extract of the soybean was obtained by extraction with 80% acetone, while that of the bound phenolic extract was done by extracting the alkaline and acid hydrolyzed residue with ethyl acetate. The inhibitory action of these extracts on the enzymes activity as well as their antioxidant properties was assessed. Both phenolic-rich extracts inhibited α-amylase, α-glucosidase and ACE enzyme activities in a dose dependent pattern. However, the bound phenolic extract exhibited significantly (. P<. 0.05) higher α-amylase and ACE inhibition while the free phenolic extract had significantly (. P<. 0.05) higher α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Nevertheless, the free phenolic extract had higher α-glucosidase inhibitory activity when compared to that of α-amylase; this property confer an advantage on soybean phenolic-rich extracts over commercial antidiabetic drugs with little or no side effect. And inhibition of ACE suggests the antihypertension potential of soybean phenolic-rich extracts. Furthermore, the enzyme inhibitory activities of the phenolic-rich extracts were not associated with their phenolic content. Therefore, phenolic-rich extracts of soybean could inhibit key-enzyme linked to type 2 diabetes (α-amylase and α-glucosidase) and hypertension (ACE) and thus could explain in part the mechanism by which soybean renders these health promoting effect. © 2011 Elsevier GmbH.

Jubril A.M.,Obafemi Awolowo University | Komolafe O.A.,Obafemi Awolowo University | Alawode K.O.,Osun State University
IEEE Transactions on Power Systems | Year: 2013

This paper presents a solution for multi-objective economic dispatch problem with transmission losses semidefinite programming (SDP) formulation. The vector objective is reduced to an equivalent scalar objective through the weighted sum method. The resulting optimization problem is formulated as a convex optimization via SDP relaxation. The convex optimization problem was solved to obtain Pareto-optimal solutions. The diversity of the solution set was improved by a nonlinear selection of the weight factor. Simulations were performed on IEEE 30-bus, 57-bus, and 118-bus test systems to investigate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. Solutions were compared to those from one of the well-known evolutionary methods. Results show that SDP has an inherently good convergence property and a lower but comparable diversity property. © 2013 IEEE.

Bello A.A.,Osun State University
Geotechnical and Geological Engineering | Year: 2012

Laboratory investigations were carried out on reddish brown tropical soils from Moniya, Ibadan Southwestern Nigeria to determine the basic unconfined compressive strength of the soil samples which is an important factor to be considered when considering materials as liners in waste containment structure. Clay mineralogy, major element geochemical analyses were carried out by means of X-ray diffractometry and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry respectively. The engineering tests such as sieve size analyses, Atterberg limits, natural moisture contents, specific gravity and compaction using four different compactive efforts namely reduced proctor, standard proctor, West African standard and modified proctor. The tests were carried out in line with the procedures of the British standard 1377 of 1990 and Head of 1992. The soils were found to contain kaolinite as the major minerals with some mixtures of smectite, muscovite, halloysite, quartzite, biotite and aluminium phosphate. Values of the unconfined compressive strength obtained within 12.5 and 22.5% moulding water contents equal to or greater than 200 kN/m 2 which is the minimum acceptable value required for containment facilities. The maximum dry density, Mg/m 3 ranged between 1.68 and 1.98 while Optimum moisture content, % ranged between 12.3 and 21.2. Hence, unconfined compressive strength values were found to be greater than 200 kN/m 2 at dry unit weight of 16.20 kN/m 3 especially when WAS and modified proctor compactive efforts were used which met the minimum required unconfined compressive strength of 200 kN/m 2 for hydraulic barriers in waste containment facilities. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

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