Wallstrom A.,County Council of Ostergotland |
Frisman G.H.,Operations and Speciality Surgery Center
Journal of Clinical Nursing | Year: 2014
Aims and objectives: To determine how restored gastrointestinal motility can be accelerated after colorectal surgery. Background: Regaining normal bowel functions after surgery is described as unexpectedly problematic. Postoperative ileus is expected after all surgery where the peritoneum is entered, and the length of surgery has little or no impact in terms of the duration of Postoperative ileus. There is some speculation about the best way to facilitate bowel motility after colorectal surgery. Design: A systematic review. Method: The computerised databases Medline, Scopus and CINAHL were searched to locate randomised, controlled trials by using the following keywords: colorectal surgery, postoperative ileus, recovery of function and gastrointestinal motility. The systematic search was limited to studies published between January 2002-January 2012. Reference lists were also searched manually. Results: A total of 34 randomised, controlled trials were included in the review. Recovery of gastrointestinal motility was accelerated when one of the following forms of treatment was administered: probiotics, early feeding in combination with multimodal regimens, pentoxifylline, flurbiprofen, valdecoxib, ketorolac, clonidine, ropivacaine, lidocaine or spinal analgesia. Gum chewing, preoperative carbohydrate loading, bisacodyl and Doppler-guided fluid management have an uncertain effect on bowel motility. The use of nonpharmacological interventions, intrathecal morphine, restricted fluid therapy and choline citrate yielded no significant acceleration in bowel motility. Conclusions: A multimodal treatment, where the use of morphine is restricted, seems to be the best way to accelerate the recovery of gastrointestinal bowel motility. However, more studies are required to optimise the multimodal protocol. Relevance to clinical practice: The early return of bowel functions leads to quicker overall postoperative recovery, which may ease patient discomfort and decrease hospitalisation costs. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Differences in recovery of left and right ventricular function following aortic valve interventions: A longitudinal echocardiographic study in patients undergoing surgical, transapical or transfemoral aortic valve implantation
Forsberg L.M.,Linköping University |
Tamas E.,County Council of Ostergotland |
Vanky F.,County Council of Ostergotland |
Engvall J.,Linköping University |
Nylander E.,Linköping University
Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions | Year: 2013
Objectives To evaluate longitudinal left and right ventricular function (LVF and RVF) after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) as compared to surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) and LVF and RVF after TAVI by the transfemoral (TF) or transapical (TA) approach. Background Knowledge about differences in recovery of LVF and RVF after TAVI and SAVR is scarce. Methods Sixty patients (age 81 ± 7 years, logistic EuroSCORE 16 ± 10%), undergoing TAVI (TF: n = 35 and TA: n = 25), were examined by echocardiography including atrioventricular plane displacement (AVPD) and peak systolic velocities (PSV) by tissue Doppler at basal RV free wall, LV lateral wall and septum preprocedurally, 7 weeks and 6 months postprocedurally. Twenty-seven SAVR patients were matched to 27 TAVI patients by age, gender and LVF. Results Early postintervention, TAVI patients had improved longitudinal LVF. However, when analyzed separately, only TF, but not TA patients, had improved LV lateral and septal AVPD and PSV (all P ≤ 0.01). All TAVI patients, as well as the TF and TA group had unchanged longitudinal LVF between the early and late follow-ups (all P > 0.05). The SAVR group had higher septal LVF than the matched TAVI group preprocedurally, while postoperatively this difference was diminished. Longitudinal RVF was better in the TF group than in the TA group pre- and postprocedurally. Although the SAVR group had superior longitudinal RVF preoperatively, this was inferior to TAVI postoperatively. Conclusions Postprocedural longitudinal LVF and RVF in patients undergoing TF-TAVI, TA-TAVI, or SAVR differ considerably. Preservation of longitudinal RVF after TAVI might influence the selection of aortic valve intervention in the future. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Schmekel B.,County Council of Ostergotland |
Schmekel B.,Linköping University |
Winquist F.,Linköping University |
Vikstrom A.,Linköping University
Analytica Chimica Acta | Year: 2014
Analyses of exhaled air by means of electronic noses offer a large diagnostic potential. Such analyses are non-invasive; samples can also be easily obtained from severely ill patients and repeated within short intervals. Lung cancer is the most deadly malignant tumor worldwide, and monitoring of lung cancer progression is of great importance and may help to decide best therapy. In this report, twenty-two patients with diagnosed lung cancer and ten healthy volunteers were studied using breath samples collected several times at certain intervals and analysed by an electronic nose. The samples were divided into three sub-groups; group d for survivor less than one year, group s for survivor more than a year and group h for the healthy volunteers. Prediction models based on partial least square and artificial neural nets could not classify the collected groups d, s and h, but separated well group d from group h. Using artificial neural net, group d could be separated from group s. Excellent predictions and stable models of survival day for group d were obtained, both based on partial least square and artificial neural nets, with correlation coefficients 0.981 and 0.985, respectively. Finally, the importance of consecutive measurements was shown. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.
Eriksson P.,Linköping University |
Sandell C.,County Council of Ostergotland |
Backteman K.,Linköping University |
Ernerudh J.,Linköping University
Journal of Rheumatology | Year: 2012
Objective. T helper cells lacking CD28 (CD4+CD28-) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener; GPA) and microscopic polyangiitis (MPA). Expansions of CD4+CD28- and CD8+CD28- T cells have also been associated with latent cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. We assessed these T cells with and without coexpression of CD56 and CD57 in relation to vasculitis as well as CMV status. Methods. Blood from 16 patients in remission (12 GPA, 4 MPA), 18 patients with active vasculitis (12 GPA, 6 MPA), and 20 healthy controls was examined by flow cytometry for expression of CD4, CD8, CD56, CD57, and CD28 on T cells. The influence of age, CMV status, presence of disease, and disease activity on T cell subpopulations was tested with multiple regression analyses. Results. In active vasculitis, the total numbers and proportion of lymphocytes were decreased. Total numbers of CD4+, CD8+, CD4+CD28-, CD8+CD28-, CD4+CD57+, and CD8+CD57+ T subpopulations were decreased to the same extent, implying unchanged proportions. Multivariate analyses showed no associations between vasculitis and CD28- or CD57+ T subpopulations, whereas immunoglobulin G antibodies to CMV were associated with expanded proportions of CD28- and CD57+ T cells, in both the CD4+ and the CD8+ compartments. Conclusion. CD28- and CD57+ T cells were associated with latent CMV infection and not with a diagnosis of GPA or MPA. Vasculitis assessment should include CMV status. The Journal of Rheumatology Copyright © 2012. All rights reserved.
Toma-Dasu I.,Karolinska Institutet |
Dasu A.,County Council of Ostergotland |
Dasu A.,Linköping University
IFMBE Proceedings | Year: 2013
One of the most challenging tasks of current radiation therapy is the individualisation of the treatment plans through biological optimisation and adaptation to functional aspects. This study aims to explore the robustness of a newly proposed method of treatment planning optimisation based on patient-specific radiation sensitivity determined by tumour hypoxia. Theoretical three-dimensional tumours with heterogeneous oxygenations were used to investigate the efficiency of various approaches for calculating the optimal dose distribution and the effects of reoxygenation during the treatment duration. The impact of the spatial averaging implied by the imaging method in combination with the binding properties of the tracer used has also been investigated. It has been shown that a newly proposed method for dose prescription based on functional imaging of hypoxia could lead to improved local control for several tracers that could be practically used. The approach for dose prescription appears to have a significant impact for tumours with dynamic hypoxia. Furthermore, the average implied by the imaging method could reduce the effectiveness of the method, but it still has the potential to provide significantly better results than methods employing highly heterogeneous dose distributions. The results showed that planning and optimisation of treatments based on hypoxia information from PET images is feasible and could provide the tool for individualising the planning on biological and molecular bases. © 2013 Springer-Verlag.
Ohrn A.,Linköping University |
Olai A.,Linköping University |
Rutberg H.,County Council of Ostergotland |
Nilsen P.,Linköping University |
Tropp H.,Linköping University
Acta Orthopaedica | Year: 2011
Background and purpose: Our knowledge of complications and adverse events in spinal surgery is limited, especially concerning incidence and consequences. We therefore investigated adverse events in spine surgery in Sweden by comparing patient claims data from the County Councils' Mutual Insurance Company register with data from the National Swedish Spine Register (Swespine). Methods: We analyzed patient claims (n = 182) to the insurance company after spine surgery performed between 2003 and 2005. The medical records of the patients filing these claims were reviewed and compared with Swespine data for the same period. Results: Two-thirds (119/182, 65%) of patients who claimed economic compensation from the insurance company were registered in Swespine. Of the 210 complications associated with these 182 claims, only 74 were listed in Swespine. The most common causes of compensated injuries (n = 139) were dural lesions (n = 40) and wound infections (n = 30). Clinical outcome based on global assessment, leg pain, disability, and quality of health was worse for patients who claimed economic compensation than for the total group of Swespine patients. Interpretation: We found considerable under-reporting of complications in Swespine. Dural lesions and infections were not well recorded, although they were important reasons for problems and contributed to high levels of disability. By analyzing data from more than one source, we obtained a better understanding of the patterns of adverse events and outcomes after spine surgery. Copyright: © Nordic Orthopaedic Federation.
Backteman K.,Linköping University |
Andersson C.,County Council of Ostergotland |
Dahlin L.-G.,County Council of Ostergotland |
Ernerudh J.,Linköping University |
Jonasson L.,Linköping University
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012
Objective: Atherosclerosis is characterized by a chronic inflammatory response involving activated T cells and impairment of natural killer (NK) cells. An increased T cell activity has been associated with plaque instability and risk of acute cardiac events. Lymphocyte analyses in blood are widely used to evaluate the immune status. However, peripheral blood contains only a minor proportion of lymphocytes. In this study, we hypothesized that thoracic lymph nodes from patients with stable angina (SA) and acute coronary syndrome (ACS) might add information to peripheral blood analyses. Methods: Peripheral blood and lymph nodes were collected during coronary by-pass surgery in 13 patients with SA and 13 patients with ACS. Lymphocyte subpopulations were assessed by flow cytometry using antibodies against CD3, CD4, CD8, CD19, CD16/56, CD25, Foxp3, CD69, HLA-DR, IL-18 receptor (R) and CCR4. Results: Lymph nodes revealed a lymphocyte subpopulation profile substantially differing from that in blood including a higher proportion of B cells, lower proportions of CD8 + T cells and NK cells and a 2-fold higher CD4/CD8 ratio. CD4 +CD69 + cells as well as Foxp3 + regulatory T cells were markedly enriched in lymph nodes (p<0.001) while T helper 1-like (CD4 +IL-18R+) cells were more frequent in blood (p<0.001). The only significant differences between ACS and SA patients involved NK cells that were reduced in the ACS group. However, despite being reduced, the NK cell fraction in ACS patients contained a significantly higher proportion of IL-18R + cells compared with SA patients (p<0.05). Conclusion: There were several differences in lymphocyte subpopulations between blood and lymph nodes. However, the lymphocyte perturbations in peripheral blood of ACS patients compared with SA patients were not mirrored in lymph nodes. The findings indicate that lymph node analyses in multivessel coronary artery disease may not reveal any major changes in the immune response that are not detectable in blood. © 2012 Backteman et al.
Dasu A.,County Council of Ostergotland |
Dasu A.,Linköping University |
Toma-Dasu I.,University of Stockholm
Medical Physics | Year: 2013
Purpose: To explore the impact of variable proton relative biological effectiveness (RBE) on dose fractionation for clinically relevant situations. A generic RBE = 1.1 is generally used for isoeffect calculations, while experimental studies showed that proton RBE varies with tissue type, dose, and linear energy transfer (LET). Methods: An analytical expression for the LET and α/β dependence of the linear-quadratic (LQ) model has been used for proton simulations in parallel with the assumption of a generic RBE = 1.1. Calculations have been performed for ranges of LET values and fractionation sensitivities to describe clinically relevant cases, such as the treatment of head and neck and prostate tumors. Isoeffect calculations were compared with predictions from a generic RBE value and reported clinical results. Results: The generic RBE = 1.1 appears to be a reasonable estimate for the proton RBE of rapidly growing tissues irradiated with low LET radiation. However, the use of a variable RBE predicts larger differences for tissues with low α/β (both tumor and normal) and at low doses per fraction. In some situations these differences may appear in contrast to the findings from photon studies highlighting the importance of accurate accounting for the radiobiological effectiveness of protons. Furthermore, the use of variable RBE leads to closer predictions to clinical results. Conclusions: The LET dependence of the RBE has a strong impact on the predicted effectiveness of fractionated proton radiotherapy. The magnitude of the effect is modulated by the fractionation sensitivity and the fractional dose indicating the need for accurate analyses both in the target and around it. Care should therefore be employed for changing clinical fractionation patterns or when analyzing results from clinical studies for this type of radiation. © 2013 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.
Andersson P.,County Council of Ostergotland |
Andersson P.,Linköping University |
Norblad R.,County Council of Ostergotland |
Norblad R.,Linköping University |
And 4 more authors.
Journal of Crohn's and Colitis | Year: 2014
Introduction: Ileal pouch anal anastomosis (IPAA) is the standard procedure for reconstruction after colectomy for ulcerative colitis (UC). However, ileorectal anastomosis (IRA) as an alternative has, recently experienced a revival. This study from a single center compares the clinical outcomes of these procedures. Methods: From 1992 to 2006, 253 patients consecutively underwent either IRA (n=105) or IPAA (n=148). Selection to either procedure was determined on the basis of rectal inflammation, presence of dysplasia/cancer or patient preferences. Patient-records were retrospectively evaluated. Mean follow-up time was 5.4 and 6.3. years respectively. Results: Major postoperative complications occurred in 12.4% of patients after IRA and in 12.8% after IPAA (ns). Complications of any kind after IRA or IPAA, even including subsequent stoma-closure, occurred in 23.8% and 39.9% respectively (p. <. 0.01). Estimated cumulative failure rates after 5 and 10. years were 10.1% and 24.1% for IRA and 6.1% and 18.6% for IPAA respectively (ns). The most common cause for failure was intractable proctitis (4.8%) and unspecified dysfunction (4.8%) respectively. At follow-up 76.9% of patients with IRA had proctitis and 34.1% with IPAA had pouchitis. Estimated cumulative cancer-risk after 10, 20 and 25. year duration of disease was 0.0%, 2.1% and 8.7% for IRA. Figures for IPAA were 0.7%, 1.8% and 1.8% (ns). Conclusion: Failure-rates did not significantly differ between patients operated with IRA or IPAA. Patients operated with IPAA had a higher cumulative number of postoperative complications. The high long-term cancer-risk after IRA indicates that this procedure should be an interim solution in younger patients. © 2013 European Crohn's and Colitis Organisation.
Welander J.,County Council of Ostergotland |
Andreasson A.,Karolinska University Hospital |
Juhlin C.C.,Karolinska University Hospital |
Wiseman R.W.,University of Wisconsin - Madison |
And 6 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2014
Context: Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas have a highly diverse genetic background, with a third of the cases carrying a germline mutation in 1 of 14 identified genes. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate next-generation sequencing for more efficient genetic testing of pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma and to establish germline and somatic mutation frequencies for all known susceptibility genes. Design: A targeted next-generation sequencing approach on an Illumina MiSeq instrument was used for a mutation analysis in 86 unselected pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma tumor samples. The study included the genes EGLN1, EPAS1, KIF1Bβ, MAX, MEN1, NF1, RET, SDHA, SDHB, SDHC, SDHD, SDHAF2, TMEM127, and VHL. Results were verified in tumor and constitutional DNA with Sanger sequencing. Results: In all cases with clinical syndromes or known germline mutations, a mutation was detected in the expected gene. Among 68 nonfamilial tumors, 32 mutations were identified in 28 of the samples (41%), including germline mutations in EGLN1, KIF1Bβ, SDHA, SDHB, and TMEM127 and somatic mutations in EPAS1, KIF1Bβ, MAX, NF1, RET, and VHL, including one double monoallelic EPAS1 mutation. Conclusions: Targeted next-generation sequencing proved to be fast and cost effective for the genetic analysis of pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma. More than half of the tumors harbored mutations in the investigated genes. Notably, 7% of the apparently sporadic cases carried germline mutations, highlighting the importance of comprehensive genetic testing. KIF1Bβ, which previously has not been investigated in a large cohort, appears to be an equally important tumor suppressor as MAX and TMEM127 and could be considered for genetic testing of these patients. Copyright © 2014 by the Endocrine Society.