Osservatorio Vesuviano


Osservatorio Vesuviano

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Beauducel F.,CNRS Paris Institute of Global Physics | Bross A.,Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory | Buontempo S.,National Institute of Nuclear Physics, Italy | D'Auria L.,Osservatorio Vesuviano | And 36 more authors.
Earth, Planets and Space | Year: 2010

The MU-RAY project has the challenging aim of performing muon radiography of the summit cone of Mt. Vesuvius. The muon telescopes developed for this purpose will be available for the radiography of other volcanoes, in particular Stromboli. The scientific goals, the strategy for their implementation and the baseline detector design are discussed in detail. A tentative time schedule for the project is drawn. Copyright © The Society of Geomagnetism and Earth, Planetary and Space Sciences (SGEPSS).

Esposito A.,The Second University of Naples | Esposito A.,International Institute for Advanced Scientific Studies IIASS | Esposito A.M.,Osservatorio Vesuviano | Vogel C.,Trinity College Dublin
Pattern Recognition Letters | Year: 2015

Demand for and delivery so far of sophisticated computational instruments able to recognize, process and store relevant interactional signals, as well as interact with people, displaying suitable autonomous reactions appropriately sensitive to environmental changes, have produced great expectations in Information Communication Technology (ICT). Knowing what an appropriate continuation of an interaction is depends on detecting the addresser's register and a machine interface unable to assess differences will have difficulty managing interactions. Progress toward understanding and modeling such facets is crucial for implementing behaving Human Computer Interaction (HCI) systems that will simplify user access to future, profitable, remote and nearby social services. This paper raises new research questions via new means for socio-behavioral and emotional investigations, and suggests the gathering of new experimental data and theories across a spectrum of research concepts, in order to develop new psychological and computational approaches crucial for implementing believable and trustable HCI systems which exploit synthetic agents, robots, and sophisticated humanlike interfaces. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Balassone G.,University of Naples Federico II | Talla D.,University of Vienna | Talla D.,Masaryk University | Beran A.,University of Vienna | And 6 more authors.
Periodico di Mineralogia | Year: 2011

A suite of twelve vesuviante samples from skarn and syenitc ejecta from the Somma- Vesuvius volcanic complex was studied by means of a combination of energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), powder and single-crystal X-ray diffraction, polarized radiation Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) singlecrystal micro-spectrometry. Some thermo-gravimetric analyses (TGA) were also performed. Vesuvianite crystals are dark brown to honey yellow-brown, rarely reddish-brown, and up to 2 centimetres in dimension. Their major elements (SiO 2, Al 2O 3, CaO and MgO) composition is rather constant, while Fe 2O 3, MnO and TiO 2 are slightly more variable. Light elements (B, Be and Li), Y, REE and actinides (Th, U) have been detected in all samples in minor to trace amounts, together with V, Zn, Zr, Sn, Co, Ga, Nb, Ta, Hf, Pb and Bi. Among the volatiles, fluorine is prevailing (in a range 1.41-2.25 wt. %). Water and chlorine are always observed, in the range 0.67-1.03 wt. % and 0.01-0.05 wt. %, respectively. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses of vesuvianite gave P4/nnc as the most probable space group. Cell parameters vary from 15.542 Å up to 15.576 Å for a and 11.800 Å up to 11.827 Å for c. Polarized FTIR spectra of the OH fundamental measured parallel to the c-axis are dominated by absorption bands at 3638, 3567, 3452 and 3200 cm -1, with two additional bands centred at 3590 and 3117 cm -1. All bands show strong pleochroism with maximum absorption parallel to the c-axis and weak absorption components perpendicular to c. The spectra measured perpendicular to the c-axis are also dominated by the 3567, 3590 and 3638 cm -1 band group. OH amounts have been calculated using the total integrated absorption coefficient derived from the fitted spectra.These contents are in good agreement with the H 2O values obtained by TGA. The formation temperature and the chemical environment of vesuvianite point to at least 800-890 °C and to the occurrence of chloride-fluoride-sulfate-carbonate-rich saline fluids, which are also rich in incompatible elements.

Letort J.,CNRS Institute of Earth Sciences | Roux P.,CNRS Institute of Earth Sciences | Vandemeulebrouck J.,CNRS Institute of Earth Sciences | Coutant O.,CNRS Institute of Earth Sciences | And 4 more authors.
Geophysical Journal International | Year: 2012

The Solfatara is one of the major volcanoes of the Phlegrean Fields (Campi Flegrei) volcanic complex, and it is located in a densely populated area a few kilometres west of the city of Naples. It is an active resurgent caldera that has been characterized by a rich history of surface-ground deformation and soil diffuse degassing and fumarolic emissions, which are indications of the top of a hydrothermal plume. A seismic survey was completed in May 2009 for the characterization of the main subsurface features of the Solfatara. Using the complete data set, we have carried out surface wave inversion with high spatial resolution. A classical minimization of a least-squares objective function was first computed to retrieve the dispersion curves of the surface waves. Then, the fitting procedure between the data and a three-sediment-layer forward model was carried out (to a depth of 7 m), using an improved version of the neighbourhood algorithm. The inversion results indicate a NE-SW fault, which is not visible at the surface. This was confirmed by a temperature survey conducted in 2010. A passive seismic experiment localized the ambient noise sources that correlate well with the areas of high CO 2 flux and high soil temperatures. Finally, considering that the intrinsic attenuation is proportional to the frequency, a centroid analysis provides an overview of the attenuation of the seismic waves, which is closely linked to the petrophysical properties of the rock. These different approaches that merge complete active and passive seismic data with soil temperature and CO 2 flux maps confirm the presence of the hydrothermal system plume. Some properties of the top of the plume are indicated and localized. © 2012 The Authors Geophysical Journal International © 2012 RAS.

Chiodini G.,Osservatorio Vesuviano | Caliro S.,Osservatorio Vesuviano | Cardellini C.,University of Perugia | Granieri D.,Sezione di Pisa | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth | Year: 2010

Long-duration time series of the chemical composition of fumaroles and of soil CO2 flux reveal that important variations in the activity of the Solfatara fumarolic field, the most important hydrothermal site of Campi Flegrei, occurred in the 2000-2008 period. A continuous increase of the CO 2 concentrations and a general decrease of the CH4 concentrations are interpreted to be the consequence of the increment of the relative amount of magmatic fluids, rich in CO2 and poor in CH 4, hosted by the hydrothermal system. Contemporaneously, the H 2O-CO2-He-N2 gas system shows remarkable compositional variations in the samples collected after July 2000 with respect to the previous ones, indicating the progressive arrival at the surface of a magmatic component different from that involved in the 1983-1984 episode of volcanic unrest (1983-1984 bradyseism). The change starts in 2000, concurrently with the occurrence of relatively deep, long-period seismic events which were the indicator of the opening of an easy ascent pathway for the transfer of magmatic fluids toward the shallower, brittle domain hosting the hydrothermal system. Since 2000, this magmatic gas source is active and causes ground deformations and seismicity as well as the expansion of the area affected by soil degassing of deeply derived CO2. Even though the activity will most probably be limited to the expulsion of large amounts of gases and thermal energy, as observed in other volcanoes and in the past activity of Campi Flegrei, the behavior of the system in the future is, at the moment, unpredictable. Copyright 2010 by the American Geophysical Union.

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