Galli M.,Ospedali Riuniti
Hamostaseologie | Year: 2011
The antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is defined by the association of arterial and/or venous thrombosis and/or pregnancy complications with the presence of at least one among the main antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) (i. e., Lupus anticoagulants, LA, IgG and/or IgM anticardiolipin antibodies, aCL, IgG and/or IgM antiβ2-glycoprotein I antibodies, aβ2-GPI). Several clinical studies have consistently reported that LA is a stronger risk factor for both arterial and venous thrombosis compared to aCL and aβ2-GPI. In particular, LA activity dependent on the first domain of β2-GPI and triple aPL positivity are associated with the risk of thrombosis and obstetrical complications. Asymptomatic aPL-positive subjects do not require primary thromboprophylaxis. Venous thromboembolism is the most common initial clinical manifestation of APS. To prevent its recurrence indefinite anticoagulation is recommended. Long duration treatment with warfarin or aspirin is used after a first cerebral arterial thrombosis. Low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) with or without aspirin is recommended to reduce the rate of obstetrical complications of APS pregnant women. © Schattauer 2011.
Galli M.,Ospedali Riuniti
Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis | Year: 2012
The antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is defined by the association of arterial and/or venous thrombosis and/or pregnancy complications with the presence of at least one of the main laboratory-detected antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) (i.e., lupus anticoagulants [LA], IgG and/or IgM anticardiolipin antibodies [aCL], and IgG and/or IgM anti-glycoprotein I antibodies [aPI]). During the last decade efforts have been made to improve the harmonization and reproducibility of laboratory detection of aPL and guidelines have been published. The prognostic significance of aPL is being clarified through the fine elucidation of their antigenic targets and pathogenic mechanisms. Several clinical studies have consistently reported that LA is a stronger risk factor for both arterial and venous thrombosis compared with aCL and aPI. In particular, LA activity dependent on the first domain of glycoprotein I and triple aPL positivity are prognosticators of the thrombotic and obstetric risks. Hopefully, this increasing knowledge will help improve diagnostic and treatment strategies for APS. Copyright © 2012 by Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc.
Rambaldi A.,Ospedali Riuniti
International Journal of Hematology | Year: 2010
Myelofibrosis shows a progressive clinical course and usually a poor, lethal prognosis. Allogeneic transplantation is an effective, potentially curable treatment approach although only a minority of patients may currently benefit from it. New effective treatment strategies are becoming available for this disease, including not only JAK2 inhibitors, but also other innovative drugs, targeting more general oncogenic mechanisms and the epigenetic control of cell proliferation and differentiation. © 2010 The Japanese Society of Hematology.
Cerutti M.,French National Center for Scientific Research |
Golay J.,Ospedali Riuniti
mAbs | Year: 2012
Monoclonal antibodies are used with great success in many different therapeutic domains. In order to satisfy the growing demand and to lower the production cost of these molecules, many alternative systems have been explored. Among them, the baculovirus/insect cells system is a good candidate. This system is very safe, given that the baculoviruses have a highly restricted host range and they are not pathogenic to vertebrates or plants. But the major asset is the speed with which it is possible to obtain very stable recombinant viruses capable of producing fully active proteins whose glycosylation pattern can be modulated to make it similar to the human one. These features could ultimately make the difference by enabling the production of antibodies with very low costs. However, efforts are still needed, in particular to increase production rates and thus make this system commercially viable for the production of these therapeutic agents. © 2012 Landes Bioscience.
Brunelli A.,Ospedali Riuniti
Seminars in Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery | Year: 2010
Risk assessment for pulmonary resection must include a preliminary cardiac evaluation. Patients deemed at prohibitive cardiac risk should be evaluated and treated as per American Heart Association/American Society of Cardiology guidelines. Those with low cardiac risk or with optimized treatment can proceed with pulmonary assessment. A systematic measurement of lung carbon monoxide diffusing capacity is recommended. In addition, predicted postoperative forced expiratory volume in 1 second should not be used alone for patient selection because it is not an accurate predictor of complications, particularly in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The use of exercise testing should be emphasized. Low-technology tests, such as stair climbing, can be used whenever a formal cardiopulmonary exercise test is not readily available. However, in case of suboptimal performance (ie, <22 m in the stair-climbing test) patients should be referred to cardiopulmonary exercise testing with measurement of Vo2max for a better definition of their aerobic reserve. A Vo2max less than 10 mL/kg/min (or <35% of predicted) indicates a high risk for major lung resection. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.