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Lugano, Switzerland

Staehelin C.,University of Bern | Keiser O.,University of Bern | Calmy A.,University of Geneva | Weber R.,University of Zurich | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes

Objectives: Persons from sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are increasingly enrolled in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study (SHCS). Cohorts from other European countries showed higher rates of viral failure among their SSA participants. We analyzed long-term outcomes of SSA versus North Western European participants. Design: We analyzed data of the SHCS, a nation-wide prospective cohort study of HIV-infected adults at 7 sites in Switzerland. Methods: SSA and North Western European participants were included if their first treatment combination consisted of at least 3 antiretroviral drugs (cART), if they had at least 1 follow-up visit, did not report active injecting drug use, and did not start cART with CD4 counts >200 cells per microliter during pregnancy. Early viral response, CD4 cell recovery, viral failure, adherence, discontinuation from SHCS, new AIDS-defining events, and survival were analyzed using linear regression and Cox proportional hazard models. RESULTS: The proportion of participants from SSA within the SHCS increased from 2.6% (<1995) to 20.8% (2005-2009). Of 4656 included participants, 808 (17.4%) were from SSA. Early viral response (6 months) and rate of viral failure in an intent-to-stay-on-cART approach were similar. However, SSA participants had a higher risk of viral failure on cART (adjusted hazard ratio: 2.03, 95% confidence interval: 1.50 to 2.75). Self-reported adherence was inferior for SSA. There was no increase of AIDS-defining events or mortality in SSA participants. Conclusions: Increased attention must be given to factors negatively influencing adherence to cART in participants from SSA to guarantee equal longer-term results on cART. Source

Muretti M.,Cardiocentro Ticino | Torre T.M.,Cardiocentro Ticino | Mauri R.,Cardiocentro Ticino | Trunfio R.,Cardiocentro Ticino | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Heart Valve Disease

The incidence of bacterial endocarditis (BE) during pregnancy is about 0.01%, while maternal and fetal mortality rates due to BE are 22% and 15%, respectively. Fetal survival is <15% until week 25 of gestation, and cesarean delivery is recommended before cardiopulmonary bypass in the third trimester. The case is described of a 24-year-old woman (a known drug addict), gravida 1, para 0, at week 22 of gestation, with an acute mitral valve endocarditis caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Following urgent mitral valve replacement, the strategy for fetal survival involved reducing the hemodilution and scavenging the cardioplegia solution from the right atrium, avoiding deep hypothermia to minimize rewarming, and maintaining a high pump flow rate (>2.5 1/min/m 2) with a mean perfusion pressure of 70 mmHg, using pulsatile perfusion. The patient had an uneventful postoperative course, and at 34 weeks' gestation a normal newborn of 1780 g was delivered by cesarean section. No controlled clinical trials using extracorporeal circulation during pregnancy have been conducted, and reports are limited to single cases. A strategy was proposed to manage the present case of uncontrolled maternal BE at an early gestational age, by addressing several factors that would influence the outcome for both mother and baby. © Copyright by ICR Publishers 2010. Source

Van Den Berg J.C.,Ospedale Regionale di Lugano
Vascular Disease Management

The use of three-dimensional (3D) image guidance for endovascular procedures has increased over the last decade. This paper will discuss the background of the development of 3D rotational angiography and live 3D-roadmap techniques based on selective 3D rotational angiography. This paper will describe in more detail the application of novel 3D navigation tools, including the use of cone-beam CT and the use of merging techniques that allow for fusion of CT angiographic images and fluoroscopy. The technique and prerequisites for image fusion as well as advantages, disadvantages, and pitfalls will be discussed. Source

Fioole B.,St. Antonius Hospital | van de Rest H.J.M.,St. Antonius Hospital | Meijer J.R.M.,St. Antonius Hospital | van Leersum M.,St. Antonius Hospital | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Vascular Surgery

Purpose: Open revascularization in patients with chronic mesenteric ischemia (CMI) is considered the gold standard. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stenting (PTAS) is often reserved for patients not suitable for open revascularization. In our institute, endovascular revascularization is the first-choice treatment. The purpose of this study was to report the technical and clinical success rates after endovascular revascularization as the first-choice treatment in a series of 51 consecutive patients with CMI at a single tertiary vascular referral center. Methods: A retrospective review was performed of all consecutive patients with CMI who underwent PTAS from July 2001 to July 2008. Only symptomatic patients treated for atherosclerotic CMI were included. Patency was evaluated using computed tomography angiography (CTA). Kaplan-Meier curves were used to calculate patency rates of the treated mesenteric arteries. Results: Sixty mesenteric arteries (30 celiac trunks, 24 superior mesenteric, and 6 inferior mesenteric arteries) were treated in 51 patients (26 men). Major morbidity was 4%. After dissection of the superior mesenteric artery (n = 1) and brachial artery (n = 1), respectively, both patients underwent endarterectomy and patch plasty. In three arteries, the lesion could not be crossed endovascularly and they were deemed immediate intention-to-treat failures. The initial technical success rate was 93%. No 30-day mortality was observed. Median follow-up was 25 months. During follow-up, 2 patients died from intestinal ischemia. Complete symptom relief was achieved in 78% of patients. Primary 1- and 2-year patency rates were 86% ± 5% and 60% ± 9%, respectively; primary-assisted patency rates were 88% ± 5% and 79% ± 7%, respectively. During follow-up, 6 patients underwent open revascularization due to failure of PTAS. Conclusion: The initial technical success rate of PTAS as first-choice treatment of CMI is >90%. The 2-year primary patency rate dropped to 60%, but symptomatic in-stent stenoses could often be treated successfully with renewed endovascular techniques. Including one conversion, 14% of patients needed open revascularization during follow-up. © 2010 Society for Vascular Surgery. Source

De Spirito D.,Ospedale Regionale di Lugano
Techniques in Hand and Upper Extremity Surgery

Closed percutaneous wire fixation of hand fractures frequently requires protection with external splintage. This splintage increases the risk of joint stiffness, prolongs recovery time, and increases therapy input. We have developed a method of linking external Kirschner wires (K-wires), using a metal clamp, after their insertion, so as to increase the security of fixation and facilitate postoperative mobilization. The mechanical properties of this method have been assessed in vitro and compared with conventionally fixed, unlinked, K-wires. We have been able to establish that the linked K-wire system is better able to resist loosening. This work proposes that linkage of K-wires permits omission of all additional external splintage, with no detriment to management. The technique has been applied in clinical cases over the past 8 years and results of treatments were evaluated mainly to detect unexpected complications. We report a low rate of complications and good results in terms of bone healing and recovery of function. © 2013 by Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. Source

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