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Emma F.,Ospedale Pediatrico Bambino Ges IRCCS | Montini G.,University of Milan | Parikh S.M.,Harvard University | Salviati L.,University of Padua
Nature Reviews Nephrology

Mitochondria are increasingly recognized as key players in genetic and acquired renal diseases. Most mitochondrial cytopathies that cause renal symptoms are characterized by tubular defects, but glomerular, tubulointerstitial and cystic diseases have also been described. For example, defects in coenzyme Q 10 (CoQ 10) biosynthesis and the mitochondrial DNA 3243 A>G mutation are important causes of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis in children and in adults, respectively. Although they sometimes present with isolated renal findings, mitochondrial diseases are frequently associated with symptoms related to central nervous system and neuromuscular involvement. They can result from mutations in nuclear genes that are inherited according to classic Mendelian rules or from mutations in mitochondrial DNA, which are transmitted according to more complex rules of mitochondrial genetics. Diagnosis of mitochondrial disorders involves clinical characterization of patients in combination with biochemical and genetic analyses. In particular, prompt diagnosis of CoQ 10 biosynthesis defects is imperative because of their potentially reversible nature. In acute kidney injury (AKI), mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to the physiopathology of tissue injury, whereas mitochondrial biogenesis has an important role in the recovery of renal function. Potential therapies that target mitochondrial dysfunction or promote mitochondrial regeneration are being developed to limit renal damage during AKI and promote repair of injured tissue. © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited. Source

De Ioris M.A.,Ospedale Pediatrico Bambino Ges IRCCS | Castellano A.,Ospedale Pediatrico Bambino Ges IRCCS | Ilari I.,Ospedale Pediatrico Bambino Ges IRCCS | Garganese M.C.,Imaging | And 9 more authors.
European Journal of Cancer

Purpose: Topotecan is an active drug in relapsed neuroblastoma. We investigated the efficacy and toxicity of a topotecan-based induction regimen in newly diagnosed neuroblastoma. Methods: Patients older than 1 year with either metastatic or localised stage 2-3 MYCN-amplified neuroblastoma received 2 courses of high-dose topotecan (HD-TPT) 6 mg/m2 and high-dose cyclophosphamide (HD-CPM) 140 mg/kg, followed by 2 courses of ifosfamide, carboplatin and etoposide (ICE) every 28 days. After surgery on primary tumour, a fifth course with vincristine, doxorubicin and CPM was given, followed by high-dose chemotherapy with stem cell support. Response was assessed in accordance with the International Neuroblastoma Response Criteria. Results: Of 35 consecutive patients, 33 had metastatic disease. The median length of induction phase was 133 days (range 91-207) and time to high-dose chemotherapy was 208 days (range 156-285). The median tumour volume reduction was 55% after two HD-TPT/HD-CPM courses and 80% after four courses. Radical surgery was performed in 16/27 patients after chemotherapy. After the fifth course, 29/34 patients (85%) had achieved a partial remission (12) or a CR/very good partial remission (17). CR of metastases was achieved in 13/32 (41%) and bone marrow was in complete remission in 16/24 patients (67%). Grade 4 neutropenia and/or thrombocytopenia occurred in 100% of HD-TPT/HD-CPM and in 95% of ICE courses, while non-haematological toxicities were manageable. Conclusions: These data indicate that our induction regimen is feasible and well tolerated. A major response rate of 85% with 41% complete metastatic response confirms this regimen as effective induction in high-risk neuroblastoma. © 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Source

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