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Raimondo F.,University of Milan Bicocca | Corbetta S.,University of Milan Bicocca | Savoia A.,University of Milan Bicocca | Chinello C.,University of Milan Bicocca | And 7 more authors.
Molecular BioSystems | Year: 2015

Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC) is the most common kidney cancer, accounting for 3% of adult malignancies, with high metastatic potential and radio-/chemo-resistance. To investigate the protein profile of membrane microdomains (MD), plasma membrane supramolecular structures involved in cell signaling, transport, and neoplastic transformation, we set up a proteomic bottom-up approach as a starting point for the identification of potential RCC biomarkers. We purified MD from RCC and adjacent normal kidney (ANK) tissues, through their resistance to non-ionic detergents followed by ultracentrifugation in sucrose density gradient. MD from 5 RCC/ANK tissues were then pooled and analysed by LC-ESI-MS/MS. In order to identify the highest number of proteins and increase the amount of membrane and hydrophobic ones, we first optimized an enzymatic digestion protocol based on Filter Aided Sample Preparation (FASP), coupled to MD delipidation. The MS analysis led to the identification of 742 ANK MD and 721 RCC MD proteins, of which, respectively, 53.1% and 52.6% were membrane- bound. Additionally, we evaluated RCC MD differential proteome by label-free quantification; 170 and 126 proteins were found to be, respectively, up-regulated and down-regulated in RCC MD. Some differential proteins, namely CA2, CD13, and ANXA2, were subjected to validation by immunodecoration. These results show the importance of setting up different protocols for the proteomic analysis of membrane proteins, specific to the different molecular features of the samples. Furthermore, the subcellular proteomic approach provided a list of differentially expressed proteins among which RCC biomarkers may be looked for. © The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source

Zoppis I.,University of Milan Bicocca | Borsani M.,University of Milan Bicocca | Gianazza E.,University of Milan Bicocca | Chinello C.,University of Milan Bicocca | And 7 more authors.
2012 IEEE 2nd International Conference on Computational Advances in Bio and Medical Sciences, ICCABS 2012 | Year: 2012

Mass Spectrometry (MS)-based technologies represent a promising area of research in clinical analysis. They are primarily concerned with measuring the relative intensity (i.e., signals) of many protein/peptide molecules associated with their mass-to-charge ratios. These measurements provide a huge amount of information which requires adequate tools to be interpreted. Following the methodology for testing hypotheses, we investigate the proteomic signals of the most common type of Renal Cell Carcinoma, the Clear Cell variant (ccRCC) [1]. By using mutual information, we detect changes in dependence values between signals from control to case groups (ccRCC or non-ccRCC). To this end, we sample and represent each population group through graphs, thus providing the observed dependence structures (many real domains are best described by relational models [2]). This way, graphs establish abstract frames of reference in our analysis giving the opportunity to test hypotheses over their properties. In other words, changes are detected by testing graph property modifications from group to group. We report the mass-to-charge values which identify bounded regions where changes have been detected. The main interest in handling such regions is to perceive which signal ranges are associated with some specific factors of interest (e.g., studying differentially expressed peaks between cases and controls) and thus, to suggest potential biomarkers for future analysis [3]. This study has been applied to samples collected at the "Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico" Foundation (Milano, Italy) using a standardized protocol. All samples were analyzed using an UltraFlex II MALDI-TOF/TOF MS instrument and mass spectra were acquired in the m=z range of 1000-12000. The samples cohort consists of 85 control subjects and 102 Renal Cell Carcinoma patients. It was possible to classify pathological group in patients affected by clear cell (ccRCC) and other different histological subtypes (respectively 79 ccRCC and 23 non-ccRCC). Table I reports the selected rejection regions (i.e., tests reject the null) at the 5% significance level. Testing hypotheses suggested by the data may induce statistical bias. For this reason, we evaluate the results to independent samples. We investigate whether test decisions are statistically independent from the region's property (i.e., distinguishing (DR) or non-distinguishing (ND) regions) when new samples are given. In other words, we want to know whether the property of a region can be statistically associated to test decisions when new samples are available. After that a new sample is provided, we verify test decisions over both the detected distinguishing regions and these regions out of the m=z bounding values previously detected. Table II summarizes the (Fisher's exact test) results confirming a significant association (α = 0.05 level) between decisions and region's property for both the class of tests. This work was supported by grants from the Italian Ministry of University and Research (PRIN n. 69373, FIRB n. RBRN07BMCT 011, FAR 2006-2011), EuroKUP COST Action (BM0702) and the NEDD project ("Regione Lombardia"). © 2012 IEEE. Source

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