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De Franchis R.,University of Milan | Dell'Era A.,University of Milan | Dell'Era A.,Ospedale Universitario Luigi Sacco
Varcieal Hemorrhage | Year: 2014

Variceal Hemorrhage provides an update of the evidence concerning several aspects of variceal hemorrhage. The book features new information on natural history, diagnosis of esophageal varices, assessment of the risk of bleeding, and identification of high risk groups and patients who may benefit or be harmed from different treatments. The volume also presents a critical analysis of the different steps in the management of acute variceal bleeding. Authored by the most prominent world experts in their areas of expertise, Variceal Hemorrhage serves as a very useful reference for gastroenterologists, GI surgeons, residents in internal medicine and physicians dealing with and interested in the different aspects of this severe medical emergency. © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014.

Cattaneo A.,Epidemiologo | Pani P.,Nutrizionista | Carletti C.,Nutrizionista | Guidetti M.,University of Modena and Reggio Emilia | And 33 more authors.
Medico e Bambino | Year: 2016

Background: In most European countries advertisements of infant formula are forbidden, while those of follow-on formula are allowed. Recent researches carried out in Australia and Great Britain have suggested that advertisement of toddler formula is used by the producing industry as a line extension to promote infant and follow-on formulas. Objectives: The objective of the study is to assess how advertisements of follow-on formulas are perceived by pregnant women and mothers in Italy. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in 8 cities of the North, Centre and South of Italy and had two components: 1) a quantitative analysis of 562 self-administered questionnaires for mothers of children under 3 years of age, to explore their exposure to and perception of formula advertisements; 2) a qualitative analysis of 80 in-depth semi-structured interviews to 80 pregnant women, in their 32-36 weeks of gestation with no other children, on their understanding and perception of two advertisements for follow-on formulas. Results: Asked in the self-administered questionnaires whether they had ever come across advertisements of infant formulas, 81% of mothers reported that they had, despite the fact that such advertisements are prohibited by law. The qualitative interviews to pregnant women showed their inability to identify the advertised products at first glance due to the ambiguity of the numeral 2 and the presumed age of the portrayed babies; this confusion did not disappear after careful observation of the advertisements and reading of the text. Conclusions: Advertisements of follow-on formulas are perceived by many pregnant women and mothers as promoting infant formulas.

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