Colorectal poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas and mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinomas: Insights into the diagnostic immunophenotype, assessment of methylation profile, and search for prognostic markers
La Rosa S.,Ospedale di Circolo |
Marando A.,University of Insubria |
Furlan D.,University of Insubria |
Sahnane N.,University of Insubria |
Capella C.,University of Insubria
American Journal of Surgical Pathology | Year: 2012
Colorectal poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas (NECs) and mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinomas (MANECs) are well-recognized entities generally known to be associated with biological aggressiveness and poor patient survival. However, a few published papers have highlighted the existence of a subgroup of tumors with a better survival than expected; however, to date, there are no established parameters that usefully identify this category. In the present study we have investigated the morphologic features, the CpG methylator phenotype (CIMP), microsatellite instability (MSI), and the immunohistochemical profile, including the expression of transcription factors (TTF1, ASH1, CDX2, and PAX5), stem cell markers (CD117 and CD34), and cytokeratins 7 and 20, in a series of 39 carcinomas (27 NECs and 12 MANECs) to better characterize such neoplasms and to search for prognostic indicators. No different patient survival was observed between NECs and MANECs. Neoplasms showed a heterogenous spectrum of morphologic and immunohistochemical features; however, only large-cell subtype, significant peritumoral lymphoid reaction, CD117 immunoreactivity, vascular invasion, and MSI/CIMP+ status were significantly correlated with prognosis on univariable analysis. Furthermore, vascular invasion and CD117 immunoreactivity were independent prognostic markers on multivariable analysis. In addition to these prognostic features, neoplasms showed different expression of transcription factors, stem cell markers, and cytokeratins that should be considered for diagnostic purposes and, especially, for discriminating among possible differential diagnoses. © 2012 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
la Rosa S.,Ospedale di Circolo |
Marando A.,University of Insubria |
Sessa F.,University of Insubria |
Capella C.,University of Insubria
Cancers | Year: 2012
The systematic application of immunohistochemical techniques to the study of tumors has led to the recognition that neuroendocrine cells occur rather frequently in exocrine neoplasms of the gut. It is now well known that there is a wide spectrum of combinations of exocrine and neuroendocrine components, ranging from adenomas or carcinomas with interspersed neuroendocrine cells at one extreme to classical neuroendocrine tumors with a focal exocrine component at the other. In addition, both exocrine and neuroendocrine components can have different morphological features ranging, for the former, from adenomas to adenocarcinomas with different degrees of differentiation and, for the latter, from well differentiated to poorly differentiated neuroendocrine tumors. However, although this range of combinations of neuroendocrine and exocrine components is frequently observed in routine practice, mixed exocrine-neuroendocrine carcinomas, now renamed as mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinomas (MANECs), are rare; these are, by definition, neoplasms in which each component represents at least 30% of the lesion. Gastrointestinal MANECs can be stratified in different prognostic categories according to the grade of malignancy of each component. The present paper is an overview of the main clinicopathological, morphological, immunohistochemical and molecular features of this specific rare tumor type. © 2012 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
Edefonti A.,Pediatric Nephrology Unit |
Tel F.,Pediatric Nephrology Unit |
Testa S.,Pediatric Nephrology Unit |
De Palma D.,Ospedale di Circolo
Seminars in Nuclear Medicine | Year: 2014
According to the literature, febrile urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common severe bacterial infections occurring in childhood, with potential serious long-term consequences. In recent years, there have been significant developments in our understanding of the pathophysiology and clinical and laboratory issues of febrile UTIs. Studies are focusing on the role of predisposing host factors related to genes regulating immune response, inflammation and fibrosis in the development of acute renal damage and subsequent processes leading to renal scars. All the available guidelines underline the importance of a correct diagnosis of febrile UTI to allow a more rational use of antibiotics and imaging. As a consequence, a shift from aggressive imaging studies to a more restrictive and targeted approach has been recently observed. Regarding the prognosis of febrile UTI, the introduction of prenatal ultrasound studies revealed that a great portion of the alterations at imaging (and thus of the clinical complications), previously attributed to postinfection scarring, were because of congenital kidney and urinary tract abnormalities. Although the long-term consequences of febrile UTIs are difficult to ascertain, it seems that children with febrile UTI, normal renal function and normal kidneys at start present a very low risk of developing decreased renal function or hypertension during follow-up. However, high body temperature and high procalcitonin levels during the acute phase of disease, which are indicative of severe inflammation, and the finding of renal scarring on imaging with DMSA scintigraphy 6 months after febrile UTI, together with the detection of congenital kidney and urinary tract abnormalities, indicate "kidney at risk" in UTI. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.
La Rosa S.,Ospedale di Circolo |
Sessa F.,University of Insubria
Endocrine Pathology | Year: 2014
Poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas (PDNECs) of the gastroenteropancreatic system (GEP) are a heterogeneous group of aggressive malignancies with a high propensity for distant metastases and an ominous prognosis. They have traditionally been divided into small and large cell subtypes on morphological grounds. However, histological diagnosis needs to be supported by immunohistochemistry to avoid possible misdiagnoses either with the more frequent poorly differentiated adenocarcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas or with lymphomas and mesenchymal neoplasms. Although it is well known that GEP PDNECs are associated with a poor prognosis, data from some published studies seem to suggest that there is a fraction of patients with PDNECs who have better survival than expected. GEP PDNECs are currently classified according to the criteria proposed in the 2010 WHO classification. They are simply called neuroendocrine carcinomas (NECs) and are defined by mitotic count >20×10 HPF and/or Ki-67 labeling index >20 %. However, a few recent papers have indicated that some NECs, as defined by the 2010 WHO scheme, do not show a poorly differentiated morphology as expected. This category seems to show a better prognosis and, especially, does not respond to cisplatin-based chemotherapy, which represents the goal standard therapeutic approach to high-grade PDNECs. In the present review, the main morphological, immunohistochemical, and prognostic features will be discussed as well as the opportunity to introduce a new category characterized by well to moderately differentiated morphology associated with high proliferation (mitotic count >20×10 HPF and/or Ki-67 index >20 %). © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media.
Side effects of bacillus calmette-guérin (BCG) in the treatment of intermediate- and high-risk Ta, T1 papillary carcinoma of the bladder: Results of the EORTC genito-urinary cancers group randomised phase 3 study comparing one-third dose with full dose and 1 year with 3 years of maintenance BCG
Brausi M.,New Estense S. Agostino Hospital Ausl Modena |
Oddens J.,Robert Bosch GmbH |
Sylvester R.,European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer |
Bono A.,Ospedale di Circolo |
And 7 more authors.
European Urology | Year: 2014
Background Although bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) has proven highly effective in non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC), but it can cause severe local and systemic side effects. Objectives The objective was to determine whether reducing the dose or duration of BCG was associated with fewer side effects. Efficacy comparisons of one-third dose versus full dose BCG given for 1 yr versus 3 yr have previously been published. Design, setting, and participants After transurethral resection, patients with intermediate- and high-risk NMIBC without carcinoma in situ were randomised to one-third dose or full dose BCG and 1 yr or 3 yr of maintenance. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis Local and systemic side effects were recorded at every instillation and divided into three time periods: during induction, during the first year after induction, and during the second and third years of maintenance. Results and limitations Of the 1316 patients who started BCG, 826 (62.8%) reported local side effects, 403 (30.6%) reported systemic side effects, and 914 (69.5%) reported local or systemic side effects. The percentage of patients with at least one side effect was similar in the four treatment arms (p = 0.41), both overall and in the different time periods. The most frequent local and systemic side effects were chemical cystitis in 460 (35.0%) patients and general malaise in 204 patients (15.5%); 103 patients (7.8%) stopped treatment because of side effects. No significant difference was seen between treatment groups (p = 0.74). In the 653 patients randomised to 3 yr of BCG, 35 (5.4%) stopped during the first year, and 21 (3.2%) stopped in the second or third year. Conclusions No significant differences in side effects were detected according to dose or duration of BCG treatment in the four arms. Side effects requiring stoppage of treatment were seen more frequently in the first year, so not all patients are able to receive the 1-3 yr of treatment recommended in current guidelines. This study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov with identifier NCT00002990 (http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/record/NCT00002990). © 2013 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.